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1

Metabolism

the sum total of all chemical reactions in a cell

2

Studies done by Buchner showed that ground-up yeast cells were able to convert sugar to alcohol. The components of the mixture that were responsible for this transformation were


A. DNA molecules.

B. enzymes.

C. lipids.

D. carbohydrates.

B. enzymes.

3

Experiments designed by ______________ suggested that living cells caused the fermentation of sugar to produce alcohol.


A. Pasteur

B. Koch

C. Wohler

D. Fleming

A. Pasteur

4

Concerning catabolism and anabolism,


A. they refer to reactions solely dealing with the metabolism of lipids.

B. the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other.

C. the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other.

D. they refer solely to the reactions involved in synthesis of carbohydrates.

E. the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other AND the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other.

E. the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other AND the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other.

5

The general term used to describe the anabolic and catabolic reactions in a cell is


A. enzymatic.

B. thematic.

C. aerobic respiration.

D. metabolism.

D. metabolism.

6

Energy is defined as


A. water flowing up a dam.

B. the capacity to do work.

C. the use of high level phosphate bonds.

D. the potential to fall.

B. the capacity to do work.

7

Biosynthetic reactions that require energy for the conversion of molecular subunits into larger molecules are called


A. kinetic energy.

B. catabolic reactions.

C. precursor molecules.

D. anabolic reactions.

D. anabolic reactions.

8

Exergonic reactions


A. occur when there is more free energy in the products than the reactants.

B. occur when there is more free energy in the reactants than the products.

C. are defined as a decrease in entropy.

D. are chemoorganotrophic.

B. occur when there is more free energy in the reactants than the products.

9

Free energy


A. includes the energy lost as heat.

B. is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical.

C. differs for a given reaction depending on the number of steps involved.

D. always results in a decrease in total energy.

E. is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical AND differs for a given reaction depending on the number of steps involved.

B. is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical.

10

Bacteria that can absorb light energy and convert it into ATP are commonly called


A. cytochromes.

B. lysosomes.

C. chemotrophs.

D. phototrophs.

E. cytochromes AND chemotrophs.

D. phototrophs.

11

The readily usable energy currency of cells is


A. electricity.

B. the electron transport system.

C. ATP.

D. CTP.

E. the electron transport system AND CTP.

C. ATP.

12

Each of the following statements about chemoorganotrophs is true EXCEPT:


A. They may use substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP.

B. They may use oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP.

C. They may use photophosporylation to produce ATP.

D. They utilize an electrochemical gradient.

B. They may use oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP.

13

The name given to the reaction involving removal of electrons or hydrogen atoms from a compound is termed


A. glycolysis.

B. reduction.

C. oxidation.

D. metabolism.

C. oxidation.

14

The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a compound is termed


A. glycolysis.

B. reduction.

C. oxidation.

D. metabolism.

B. reduction.

15

NAD in its reduced form is symbolized as


A. NADH.

B. NAD.

C. NAD-.

D. NADP.

A. NADH.

16

Glycolysis


A. is also known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway.

B. is also known as the Entner-Duodoroff pathway.

C. is used by Pseudomonas and a few other bacteria.

D. generates some energy and NADPH.

E. is also known as the Entner-Duodoroff pathway AND is used by Pseudomonas and a few other bacteria.

A. is also known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway.

17

The most common starting pathway for the breakdown of sugars is


A. respiration.

B. fermentation.

C. glycolysis.

D. oxidation.

C. glycolysis.

18

Glycolysis, the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway all produce


A. pyruvate.

B. NAD.

C. NADP.

D. acetyl-CoA.

A. pyruvate.

19

Cells degrade sugar largely to


A. gain energy.

B. use energy.

C. convert fat to energy.

D. utilize coenzymes.

A. gain energy.

20

Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor in


A. fermentation.

B. aerobic respiration.

C. anaerobic respiration.

D. reduction.

B. aerobic respiration.

21

The terminal electron acceptor in respiration may be


A. oxygen.

B. nitrate.

C. NAD.

D. an inorganic molecule.

E. oxygen, nitrate AND an inorganic molecule.

E. oxygen, nitrate AND an inorganic molecule.

22

Which of the following processes generates the greatest amount of energy?


A. fermentation

B. aerobic respiration

C. the Entner-Duodoroff pathway

D. glycolysis

E. fermentation AND the Entner-Duodoroff pathway

B. aerobic respiration

23

Fermentation


A. uses an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor.

B. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor.

C. results in the production of a large amount of ATP.

D. is necessary in some organisms to produce reduced electron carriers.

E. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor AND is necessary in some organisms to produce reduced electron carriers.

B. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor.

24

Which is/are true regarding organic acids?


A. They are weak acids.

B. They are often involved in metabolic reactions.

C. They often exist in the ionized form at the near-neutral pH found in a cell.

D. Pyruvate and pyruvic acid refer to different forms of the same substance.

E. All of the choices are true.

E. All of the choices are true.

25

Pyruvate can be metabolized along two major routes. They are


A. oxidation and reduction.

B. fermentation and respiration.

C. metabolism and anabolism.

D. anabolism and catabolism.

B. fermentation and respiration.

26

The use of the suffix "ase" on a word denotes a(n)


A. substrate.

B. product.

C. enzyme.

D. electron acceptor.

E. substrate AND electron acceptor.

C. enzyme.

27

Enzymes act as


A. substrates.

B. catalysts.

C. products.

D. catabolites.

B. catalysts.

28

Enzymes act on _______ to produce ________.


A. products, catabolites

B. substrates, products

C. products, substrates

D. glucose, anabolites

B. substrates, products

29

Enzymes speed up reactions by


A. raising activation energy.

B. producing heat.

C. reducing entropy.

D. lowering activation energy.

E. raising activation energy AND reducing entropy.

D. lowering activation energy.

30

The mutual interaction of substrate and enzyme is described as a(n)


A. lock and key arrangement.

B. induced fit.

C. active site.

D. allosteric site.

E. active site AND allosteric site.

B. induced fit.