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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Quiz Deck (55):

According to the sociological perspective, why do people choose spouses who share their race, social class, level of education, and degree of physical attractiveness

Society guides our actions, thoughts, and feelings, narrowing our choices to people similar to ourselves.


According to C. Wright Mills, in what ways were people able to use a sociological perspective to better understand their lives during the Great Depression?

People realized they couldn't find jobs because the economy had collapsed.


Why did the Wall Street Journal call Karl Marx one of the world's three greatest modern thinkers

His theories had a major influence on world history.


The word sociology combines the Greek word logos, meaning "study of," with the Latin word socius meaning "______."

being with others.


What religious aspect brought about capitalism, according to Max Weber?

Protestants saw financial success as a sign of God's favor.


Herbert Spencer used the phrase "survival of the fittest" to refer to his theory that _______.

societies evolve over time because the fittest members adapt to their environment.


How did Comte contribute to the study of society?

He applied the scientific method to the study of society.


Which phrase best defines the Protestant ethic, according to Max Weeber?

Financial investments.


On which point did Herbert Spencer disagree with Auguste Comte?

Sociologists should guide social reform.


Which statements best describes the approach of W.E.B Du Bois in addressing the problems facing black communities?

He spoke out against racial inequality and become involved with organizations to combat racism.


What challenge did female sociologists in the 19th-century face?

Sex roles made it difficult for them to be respected as sociologists.


Which program would be most likely to hire an applied sociologist?

A non-profit organization's program to improve a neighborhood.


Who would most likely be an advocate of affirmative action ?

W. E. B. Du Bois.


How did Devah Pager's study change from basic sociology to public sociology?

President George W. Bush read Pager's result and created a mentoring program for released prisoners seekings jobs.


Jane Addams opened Hull-House with a mission to _______.

offer refuge to immigrants, the poor, the sick, and older people.


Which of the following is the most likely approach an applied sociologist would take to the problem of children in an urban area who are hungry?

Create a school lunch program


Monique watns to study the meaning of pratyer beads in different religions. Which of the following types of sociology is she likely to align herself with?

Symbolic interactionism.


A sociologist following the ------- approach would be likely to ask the following questions:What are the major parts of society? How are these parts linked? What does each part do to help society work?

functional analysis


Based on the work of Robert K. Merton, what is a social dysfunction?

Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.


Someone used the functional analysis approach might classify the effect higher education has on unemployment levels as a ________.

Latent function


Symbolic interactionism is a micro-level approach because it analyzes ______.

meaning that groups attach to their social word.


Feminists will sometimes draw on the ideas of Marxism but instead focusing on _____ they focus on _______.

capitalists and workers; men and women.


Common sense is to _______
as the scientific method is to sociological research.

background knowledge


In comparison to sociological research, common sense is _____ understanding social life.

an insufficient means of


Tables contain ______ elements.



A researcher finds that use of deodorant causes breast cancer. Subsequent studies by other researchers, however, have not replicated this finding. The first researcher's study lacks _______.



When operational definitions measure what they are intended to measure, they are said to be _________.



Kayla decides that she would like to research eating disorders. She wants to determine how they begin in teenage American girls. Her next step in the research model is ________.

reviewing the literature.


Which of the following is the first basic step in scientific research?

Selecting a topic.


Which of the following is one of the major drawbacks of case studies?

They are often very specific and, therefore, suffer from the problem of generalizability.


__________ focuses on a single event, situation, or individual.

A case study.


When a researcher fails to take into account the fact that participants in a study might respond a certain way just to avoid sounding politically incorrect, this is bias due to ________.

mere sloppiness


In a survey, the people who answer the question are known as _______.



________ means that one thing happens before something else does.

Temporal priority.


To gather data in sensitive areas, some researchers use _____.

Computer- Assisted self-interviewing.


In a _________, everyone in your target population has the same chance of being included in the study.

random sample.


Scully and Marolla feared that their interviews of rapists in prison might be affected by ______.

Interviewers bias.


Why is gender a signficant factor to consider when conducting a research?

It affects orientation and attitudes on many topics.


Which of the following statements best explains why a sociologist would not slip an unsuspecting soldier LSD, as was done in the 1960s?

Today, sociologist take human subjects' ethics very srsly.


What did Mario Brajuha do that made his research experiment famous?

He protected his subjects.


Which of the following did Humphreys' research show about the nature of sociological study?

Human relationship and the means of studying them raise a wide range of ethical questions.


Which of the following is a major trend in sociology?

Sociologist are moving beyond theory development to using sociology to solve real world problems.


From a sociological perspectives, how has the spread of capitalism across the globe affected our own lives?

It has made us more dependent on one another.


It is considered _______ for sociologist to do covert participant observation, but to __________ oneself is to considered unethical.

acceptable; misrepresent.


Which the following qualities is important to keep bias from affected the data obtained in a survey?

The survey should contain neutral questions.


For Kellan's study, she would like to conduct a survey of first-time mothers in their 30s and 40s. The _____ method would work best for this study?

Stratified random sampling.


Which theory about work would be supported by Herbert Spencer's theories?

Highly educated and skilled workers move up and become leaders.


Which factor most contributed to the birth of the field of sociology?

The scientific method.


The main benefit of writing and publishing a research report is to _______.

Share the findings with the scientific community.


Which of the following statements explains the relationships between biased questions and fraud?

To avoid distortion, misrepresentation, or even fraud, researchers must guard against asking biased questions.


Based on Durkheim's findings, why would Protestants have had higher suicide rates than Catholics and Jews?

Protestants had lower levels of social integration.


Why do sociologists today extend conflict theory beyond in roots?

They believe MArx's theory applies to conflicts between any social group, not just capitalists and workers.


Just would like to avoid using any closed-ended questions in interviewing respondents about their vacations. Which of the following questions should Justin avoid asking?

"Have you ever been disappointed by a vacation package?"


Macro-level analysis means to _______.

look at the general to understand the specific.


In his research, Ari is planning to use the ______ method in which he asks subjects a series of questions about the topic.