Chapter 7 - Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - Terms Deck (23):
1

social stratification

the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group

2

slavery

a form of social stratification in which some people own other people

3

bonded labor (indentured service)

a contractual system in which someone sells his or her body (services) for a specified period of time in an arrangement very close to slavery, except that it is entered into voluntarily

4

ideology

beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements

5

caste system

a form of social stratification in which people’s statuses are lifelong conditions determined by birth

6

endogamy

the practice of marrying within one’s own group

7

apartheid

the separation of racial–ethnic groups as was practiced in South Africa

8

estate stratification system

the stratification system of medieval Europe, consisting of three groups or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners

9

class system

a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions

10

social mobility

movement up or down the social class ladder

11

means of production

the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth

12

bourgeoisie

Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means of production

13

proletariat

Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production

14

class consciousness

Marx’s term for awareness of a common identity based on one’s position in the means of production

15

false class consciousness

Marx’s term to refer to workers identifying with the interests of capitalists

16

meritocracy

a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit

17

divine right of kings

the idea that the king’s authority comes from God; in an interesting gender bender, also applies to queens

18

colonialism

the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources

19

world system theory

how economic and political connections developed and now tie the world’s countries together

20

globalization of capitalism

capitalism (investing to make profits within a rational system) becoming the globe’s dominant economic system

21

culture of poverty

the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children

22

neocolonialism

the economic and political dominance of the Most Industrialized ­Nations over the Least Industrialized Nations

23

multinational corporations

companies that operate across national boundaries; also called transnational corporations