Chapter 1 - Research Methods Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Research Methods Deck (34):
1

What is a variable?

A quantity or quality that can vary according to time and place.

2

Independent Variable (IV)

Variable that is deliberately manipulated to see the EFFECT it has on DV.

3

Dependent Variable (DV)

Variable that is measured to see if IV has caused change in this variable

4

Extraneous Variable

Variable other than IV that causes change in the value of the DV.

5

Cofounding Variable

Variable that has a SYSTEMATIC EFFECT on the value of the DV.

6

Experimenter Effect

Actions of experimenter can affect IV and consequently the DV.

7

Self-fulfilling Prophecy

Term used to describe a situation in which participants behave in a manner of which they BELIEVE is expected.

8

Experimenter Bias

Unintentional actions that may occur in the collection and treatment of data.

9

Placebo Effect

"Participants Effect" or Placebo Effect, where the participants behavioural responses may be influenced by their expectations on how they believe they should behave.

10

Placebo

An experimenter will use a procedure or variable so that the participant believes that it is genuine (thus they usually report it works).

11

Double-Blind Procedure

Neither the experimenter nor the participants know whether they are in the control or experimental

12

Single-Blind Procedure

Either experimenter OR participants (generally participant) know whether they are in the control or experimental

13

Hypothesis

It was hypothesised that POPULATION who IV would show DIRECTION in DV compared to CONTROL GROUP .

14

Operationalised Hypothesis

The IV is Violent Games operationalised by playing GTA for 1HR.

The DV is levels of aggression operationalised by no. of physically aggressive acts.

15

Sampling Methods - Convenience

  • Sample is biased.
  • Unreliable.
  • Quick, easy, cheap and convenient!

16

Sampling Methods - Random

  • Each member of population has EQUAL chance of being choosen.
  • Gives representative sample.
  • Difficult to achieve with large populations.

17

Sampling Methods - Stratified

Dividing population into distinctive sub-groups, then selecting a separate sample from each sub-group in the same proportions as they occur in the population

18

Sampling Methods - Random Stratified

Same as stratified, except, participants are selected RANDOMLY

19

Experimental Design - Repeated Measures

SAMPLE ⇒ CONTROL ⇒ EXPERIMENTAL

  • ADVANTAGES: 
    • Eliminates participant differences
    • Fewer participants needed
  • DISADVANTAGES: 
    • Dropouts
    • Order/boredom/practice effect

20

Experimental Design - Matched Participants

SAMPLE ⇒ PRE-TEST ⇒ CONTROL or EXPERIMETAL

21

Experimental Design - Independent Groups

Sample randomly allocated

  • ADVANTAGES:
    • quick and easy
    • cost effective
    • few dropouts
  • DISADVANTAGES:
    • doesn't control individual participant differences

22

Descriptive Statistics

Describe the data (cannot draw conclusions)

23

Inferential Statistics

P Value (P<0.05)

24

Ethical Principals

  • Do no harm: psychological or physical
  • Justice: all participants to be treated fairly and equally
  • Beneficence: balance between discomfort and knowledge gained
  • Deception: minimal deception and must be debriefed at the end
  • Informed Consent: must inform participants of the nature of the research
  • Ethics Committee: adhere to ethical guidelines and approved by an ethics comittee.

25

Conclusions

Whether or not the hypothesis can be supported based on the p-value. P value MUST BE statistically significant (P<0.05)

26

Generalisations

Based on sampling procedures. P value MUST BE statistically significant (P<0.05).

Can only generalise results if sample is representative of population:

  • Random Sample
  • Stratified Random Sample
  • Stratified Sample

27

ERA - Title Page

  • Name of Experiment
  • Date
  • Student Name

28

ERA - Abstract (100-150 Words)

  • Aim/Purpose
  • Main Elements of Method
  • Brief Statement of Results
  • Conclusion

29

ERA - Introduction (150-200 Words)

  • Broad opening statement
  • Outline relevant background information
  • Define Key terms (link to theory/other key terms)
  • Summarise past research
  • Aim (what is it you're investigating)
  • Hypothesis
  • Operationalized IV
  • Operationalized DV
  • List potential confounding variables

30

ERA - Method (150-200 Words)

  • Participants
    • Total Number
    • Number of males/females
    • age range
    • any other relevant characteristics
    • how they were selected
  • Materials
    • List of equipment used
  • Procedure
    • Step-by-step description
    • Experimental design
    • allocation procedure
    • ethical considerations

31

ERA - Results (150-200 Words)

  • Correctly labelled tables & graphs
  • Statistical analysis
  • Describe results (do not mention hypothesis)

32

ERA - Discussion (200-250 Words)

  • Restate Hypothesis
  • Did your results support hypothesis? (Why/why not)
  • Do your results support previous research? (must of been mentioned in the introduction)
  • Evaluate study/limitations
  • Ethical issues
  • Conclusion
  • Generalistation

33

ERA - References

  • Havard Referencing

34

ERA - Appendices

  • Attach relevant support material
    • stimuli
    • questionnaires
    • additional calculations