Chapter 14 - Operant Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 - Operant Conditioning Deck (19):
1

Operant Conditioning Definition

Operant conditioning is a form of learning. In it, an individual changes its behaviour because of the consequences (results) of the behaviour. The person or animal learns its behaviour has a consequence. That consequence may be. Reinforcement: a positive or rewarding event.

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Three Phase Model of Operant Conditioning (DBC)

Stimulus→ Response→ Consequence

The DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS (the environment) that makes the conditions right for the BEHAVIOUR to follow and be reinforced by its CONSEQUENCES.

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Shaping Definition

Reinforcement is given for any responses that successively approximates and ultimately moves towards the desired behaviour

4

Token Economy Definition

A setting in which an individual who displays desired behaviour receives tokens (i.e. reinforcers), which can be collected and exchanged for other reinforcers in the form of actual/tangible rewards.

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Reinforcement Definition

Reinforcement: applying a positive stimulus or removing a negative stimulus to strengthen/increase the likelihood of a particular response

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Positive Reinforcement Definition

Presentation of a stimulus that strengthens/increases the likelihood of a desired response by providing a satisfying consequence (reward)

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Negative Reinforcement Definition

Removal of an unpleasant stimulus to strengthen/increase the likelihood of a desired response- Designed to increase a desired behaviour

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Punishment Definition

Applying a negative stimulus or removing a positive stimulus to weaken/decrease the likelihood of a particular response

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Positive Punishment Definition

Giving an unpleasant stimulus(e.g. smack)- Designed to decrease an undesirable behaviour

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Negative Punishment Definition

Taking away something pleasant (response cost)

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Factors Effecting Reinforcement/Punishment - ORDER OR PRESENTATION

ORDER OF PRESENTATION: reinforcement needs to occur after the desired response - not before! So the organism associates the reinforcement with the behaviour.

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Factors Effecting Reinforcement/Punishment - TIMING

TIMING: reinforcers need to occur as close in time to the desired response as possible. Most effective reinforcement occurs immediately after the desired response.

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Factors Effecting Reinforcement/Punishment - APPROPRIATES OF REINFORCER

APPROPRIATES OF REINFORCER: for a stimulus to be a reinforcer it must provide a pleasing or satisfying consequences for its recipient.

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Schedules of Reinforcement Description

Continuous Reinforcement = CRF reinforcement for each behaviour performed

Partial Reinforcement = only some correct responses rewarded

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Partial Reinforcement Overview

  • RATIO = number of responses
  • INTERVAL = time between responses
  • FIXED = responses are reinforced in a predictable manner
  • VARIABLE = responses that are randomly reinforced (unpredictable)
     
  1. FIXED-RATIO
  2. VARIABLE-RATIO
  3. FIXED-INTERVAL
  4. VARIABLE-INTERVAL

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16

Fixed Ratio Overview

Reinforcement given after a SET (fixed), UNVARYING (ratio) of desired responses

  • Produces fastest response rate
  • Response rate is erratic
  • Less resistant to extinction than variable ratio

17

Variable Ratio Overview

Reinforcement given after IRREGULAR (variable) # of correct responses (ratio)

  • Produces a steady response rate
  • More resistant to extinction than fixed ratio

18

Fixed Interval Overview

Delivery of reinforcer after SET period of TIME after correct response made.

  • Produces erratic response rate
  • Less resistant to extinction than variable interval

19

Variable Interval Overview

Reinforcer given after IRREGULAR (variable) PERIODS after correct response

  • Results in a low but steady response rate
  • More resistant to extinction than fixed interval