Operant Conditioning Definition
Operant conditioning is a form of learning. In it, an individual changes its behaviour because of the consequences (results) of the behaviour. The person or animal learns its behaviour has a consequence. That consequence may be. Reinforcement: a positive or rewarding event.
Three Phase Model of Operant Conditioning (DBC)
Stimulus→ Response→ Consequence
The DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS (the environment) that makes the conditions right for the BEHAVIOUR to follow and be reinforced by its CONSEQUENCES.
Reinforcement is given for any responses that successively approximates and ultimately moves towards the desired behaviour
Token Economy Definition
A setting in which an individual who displays desired behaviour receives tokens (i.e. reinforcers), which can be collected and exchanged for other reinforcers in the form of actual/tangible rewards.
Reinforcement: applying a positive stimulus or removing a negative stimulus to strengthen/increase the likelihood of a particular response
Positive Reinforcement Definition
Presentation of a stimulus that strengthens/increases the likelihood of a desired response by providing a satisfying consequence (reward)
Negative Reinforcement Definition
Removal of an unpleasant stimulus to strengthen/increase the likelihood of a desired response- Designed to increase a desired behaviour
Applying a negative stimulus or removing a positive stimulus to weaken/decrease the likelihood of a particular response
Positive Punishment Definition
Giving an unpleasant stimulus(e.g. smack)- Designed to decrease an undesirable behaviour
Negative Punishment Definition
Taking away something pleasant (response cost)
Factors Effecting Reinforcement/Punishment - ORDER OR PRESENTATION
ORDER OF PRESENTATION: reinforcement needs to occur after the desired response - not before! So the organism associates the reinforcement with the behaviour.
Factors Effecting Reinforcement/Punishment - TIMING
TIMING: reinforcers need to occur as close in time to the desired response as possible. Most effective reinforcement occurs immediately after the desired response.
Factors Effecting Reinforcement/Punishment - APPROPRIATES OF REINFORCER
APPROPRIATES OF REINFORCER: for a stimulus to be a reinforcer it must provide a pleasing or satisfying consequences for its recipient.
Schedules of Reinforcement Description
Continuous Reinforcement = CRF reinforcement for each behaviour performed
Partial Reinforcement = only some correct responses rewarded
Partial Reinforcement Overview
RATIO = number of responses
INTERVAL = time between responses
FIXED = responses are reinforced in a predictable manner
VARIABLE = responses that are randomly reinforced (unpredictable)
Fixed Ratio Overview
Reinforcement given after a SET (fixed), UNVARYING (ratio) of desired responses
- Produces fastest response rate
- Response rate is erratic
- Less resistant to extinction than variable ratio
Variable Ratio Overview
Reinforcement given after IRREGULAR (variable) # of correct responses (ratio)
- Produces a steady response rate
- More resistant to extinction than fixed ratio
Fixed Interval Overview
Delivery of reinforcer after SET period of TIME after correct response made.
- Produces erratic response rate
- Less resistant to extinction than variable interval
Variable Interval Overview
Reinforcer given after IRREGULAR (variable) PERIODS after correct response
- Results in a low but steady response rate
- More resistant to extinction than fixed interval