Chapter 13 - Classical Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Classical Conditioning Deck (18):

Classical Conditioning Definition

Classical Conditioning is a form of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a reflexive response by repeated association with a stimulus that automatically elicits the reflex response.


Neutral Stimulus (NS) Definition

A stimulus that initially elicits no response


Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Definition

A stimulus that consistently produces a particular, naturally occurring automatic response or reflex


Unconditioned Response (UCR) Definition

The response that occurs automatically when the UCS is presented


Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Definition

An initially neutral stimulus that does not normally produce the UCR


Conditioned Response (CR) Definition

A learned response produced by the CS


Extinction Definition

Is the gradual decrease in the strength or rate of a CR that occurs when the UCS is no longer present


Spontaneous Recovery Definition

Is the reappearance of a CR when the CS is presented, following a rest period


Stimulus Generalisation Definition

Is the tendency for another similar stimulus to produce a response that is similar to the CR


Stimulus Discrimination Definition

Occurs when a person or animal responds to the CS only, but not to any other stimulus that is is similar to the CS


Coca-Cola Example

  • UCS: good looking people, fun sexy, happiness
  • UCR: feeling good, desire to be like this
  • NS: Coke
  • CS: Coke
  • CR: Feeling good about coke/desire to buy coke


Graduated Exposure Definition

A person is taught relaxation techniques followed by the gradual exposure to the feared object or animal over several sessions


Flooding Definition

Uses actual exposure to the feared stimulus at a level greater than usual - the patient is then calmed down through relaxation techniques


Aversion Therapy

Where a person with an unwanted behaviour learns to associate the unwanted behaviour with an unpleasant event

(e.g. used with alcohol/smoking/biting nails)


Trail and Error Learning Definition

Learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achieved.


Trial and Error Learning Laws - EFFECT (1)

1. Law of Effect: states that behaviour becomes controlled by its consequences (if it feels good, we do it again; if it feels bad we don't)


Trial and Error Learning Laws - RECENCY (2)

2. Law of Recency: states that the most recent response is the one with the greatest effect


Trial and Error Learning Laws - EXERCISE (3)

3. Law of Exercise: states that stimulus-response connections are strengthened through repetition and weakened when there is no repetition