Observational Learning Definition
Watching another person's actions and watching the person's consequences.
Modelling processes in terms of the role of attention, retention, reproduction, motivation, reinforcement as informed by Albert Bandura's Social learning theory.
Process of Observational Learning - ATTENTION (1)
1. ATTENTION: person must notice the model's behaviour and pay attention to it.
Process of Observational Learning - RETENTION (2)
2. RETENTION: store a mental representation fo the behaviour/skill.
Process of Observational Learning - REPRODUCTION (3)
3. REPRODUCTION: have a physical/mental capacity to be able to imitate the behaviour/skill.
Process of Observational Learning - MOTIVATION (4)
4. MOTIVATION: desire to replicate the observed behaviour under appropriate circumstances.
Process of Observational Learning - REINFORCEMENT (5)
5. REINFORCEMENT: likelihood of learner to reproduce the model's behaviour is strengthed by the presence of a pleasant outcome.
Elements of Observational Learning
The learner plays and ACTIVE role in the learning process.
- Pay ATTENTION in order to observe the modelled behaviour.
- Mentally RETAIN what has been observed.
Viewing a model being reinforced can strengthen behaviour in an observer
Viewing a model being punished can weaken behaviour in an observer.
What is a Model?
Model's can be;
- Live (real person)
- Symbolic (cartoon)
Explain Bandura's Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory suggests that it is possible for people, especially children, to learn through observing the behaviour of others.
e.g. a co-worker observes a hardworking colleague receiving a promotion and is more likely to reproduce the same hardworking behaviour.