Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective Deck (55):
1

The study of human society and social life and the social causes and consequences of human behavior

Sociology

2

a quality of mind that allows us to understand the influence of history and biography on our interactive process.

Sociological Imagination

3

the ability to see how society and social behavior has patterns and discern social processes

Sociological Perspective

4

Macrosociology

A level of sociological analysis concerned with large scale structures like war and unemployment

5

Microsociology

small scale units like small group and social interactions

6

the study of the physical, biological, social and cultural development of humans

Anthropology

7

Auguste Comte

"father of sociology", coined the term sociology, best known for law of human progress, created concept that society is like an organism, social statics/social dynamics

8

Law of Human Progress

Society has gone through three stages
1. Theological (priests and military hold political dominance, family is prototypical social unit)
2. Metaphysical (clergy and lawyers, state)
3. Scientific (scientific moral guides and industrial admins, whole human race)

9

Social statics

Comte's term for the stable structure of society

10

Comte's term for social progresses and change

Social dynamics

11

Herbert Spencer

Believed that societies pass through an evolution process, his theories helped well educated and wealthy, he opposed public school, government non-interference

12

Karl Marx

lower class = moral outrage, political revolution = vital for improvement of society, economics = dominant institution, social conflict, economic determinism, bourgeoisie, class-consciousness

13

Social conflict

a view of Karl Marx that class struggle due to economic inequality is at the core of society

14

Economic determinism

Marx's idea that economic factors are responsible for most social change and for the nature of social conditions, activities and institutions

15

The class of people who own the means of production

Bourgeoisie

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The group in capitalist societies that does not own the means of production has only labor to sell

Proletariat

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Awareness among members of society that the society is organized in hierarchical order

Class-consciousness

18

Emile Durkheim

Suicide is a social phenomenon, social phenomenon have distinctive characteristics/determinants, collective consciousness, made sociology a legitimate academic enterprise, "social order", empirical research

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Egoistic suicide

results from lack of social integration into meaningful groups

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Altruistic suicide

results from being overly integrated into a group and the group meaning takes on more importance than the individual. Ex: ISIS

21

Anomic suicide

Results from sudden changes in society or in one's life, disruption of patterns; ex: Great Depression

22

Fatalistic suicide

results from oppressive social conditions that lead on to a fatal sense of hopelessness

23

Max Weber

German sociologist who believed sociologists should not just study social structures and facts but social actions, considered structures, social divisions, social movements, Verstehen, iron cage of rationality

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Reliable and valid pieces of information about society

Social facts

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A collective psyche that results from the blending of many individual mentalities but exist above any one individual; ex: God exists in the beliefs of people

Collective conciousness

26

Verstehen

Understanding human action by examining the subjective meaning that people attach to their own behavior and behavior of others

27

Significant contributor to early development of sociology who was ignored by the male dominated field

Harriet Martineau

28

Middle-range theory

A set of propositions designed to link abstract theory with empirical testing

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A set of logically and systematically interrelated propositions that explain a particular process phenomenon

Theory

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The theory that societies contain certain interdependent structures, each of which perform certain functions

Structural functionalism

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In structural functionalism theory, factors that lead to the disruption of breakdown of the social system

Dysfunctions

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Functional alternatives

Meeting functions of the system in ways other than initially intended. ex: providing alternatives for a child left alone (clubs, staying with a relative, etc.) = less chance of school violence

33

Conflict Theory

A social theory that views conflict as inevitable and natural as a significant cause of change. When sociologists look for answers to conflict they look for inequalities

34

Symbolic interaction theory

The social theory that stressing interactions between people and the social progress that occur within the individual that are made possible by language and internalized meaning; red traffic light = stop

35

Exchange theory

A theory of interaction that attempts to explain social behavior in terms of reciprocity of costs and rewards

36

Evolutionary theory

A theory of social development that suggests that societies, like biological organisms, progress through stages of increasing complexity

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A science that has human behavior, social organizations and society as its subject matter

Social science

38

Responsible for concept of Sociological Imagination

C. Wright Mills

39

Data derived from observation and experience

empirical evidence

40

The Development of Sociology was inspired by...

Ideas produced during the Enlightenment (18th century), progress in physical/natural sciences, Industrial Revolution, expansion of colonialism

41

Henri de St. Simon

Studied the scientific analysis of society as it pertained to social reform

42

Mechanical Solidarity

Societies and groups held together by similarities

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Organic Solidarity

Societies and groups held together by interdependence

44

False Consciousness

A belief that something is true even if it is not. ex: American Dream rags to riches stories

45

Iron Cage of Rationality

Behavior becomes goal oriented (purposeful) rather than value oriented (emotional). Causes Bureaucracies to lose their "human element"

46

Roots of Sociology in US

1892, University of Chicago - used to study urban development

47

George Herbeat Mead

"The Chicago School", roots of social psychology

48

Charles Horton Cooley

"The Chicago School", primary self

49

Robert Park and Ernest Burgress

"The Chicago School", focus on social problems;urban sociology

50

1st big shaper of sociology

Durkheim

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Key Contributors to Functionalism

Durkheim, Parsons, Merton

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Critique of Functionalism

An overly conservative view of social life, lacks sufficient critical component

53

Key Contributors to Conflict Theory

Marx, Mills, Dahrendorf, Collins

54

Criticisms of Conflict Theory

Too radical, overly critical, ignores cooperative aspects of society

55

Key Figures of Symbolic Interactionism

Cooley, Mead, Blumer