Chapter 11: Religious Groups and Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Religious Groups and Systems Deck (30):
1

3 main parts of religion

1. "a system of beliefs and practices"
2. a community or church
3. sacred things that relate to spiritual things

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Animism

The religious belief that spirits inhabit virtually everything in nature

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Shamanism

The religious belief that certain persons have special charm, skill or knowledge in influencing spirits

4

Totemism

The worship of plants, animals, and other natural objects as gods and ancestors

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Prophets

Religious leader who have authority on the basis of their charismatic qualities

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Mysticism

belief that spiritual truths come to us through intuition/meditation, not through normal human experiences

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Denomination

well establishing and highly organized churches

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Ecclesia

an official state religion that includes the most members of society

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sects

religious groups that have broken away from a parent church ex: Jehovah's witness

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Fundamentalism

belief that the Bible is the divine word of God and that all statements in it are to be taken literally

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cult

extreme form of religious organization that calls for a totally new and unique lifestyle

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Latent functions of religion

mate selection, public speaking, donations

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Dysfunctions of religion

divide society, create bias, exclude nonmembers

14

millennialism

The belief prevalent among certain Christian sects that there will be a dramatic transformation of life on Earth and Christ will rule the world for a thousand years of happiness

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Securalization

the process through which beliefs concerning the supernatural and religious institutions lose social influence

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Ecumenism

trend for different denominations to join in pursuits of common interest in a spirit of worldwide Christian unity

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Social structure

When society is organized in a way of predictable human behaviors and relationships - "socially patterned", composed of status, roles, groups and institutions

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Universalism vs. Particularism

pattern variable w/ how much we judge people objectively

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Affective neutrality vs. affectivity

how appropriate it is to show your own emotion and feelings

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Specificity vs. diffuseness

Pertains to the scope of the relationship

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self-orientation vs. collective orientation

self vs. group interests
bettering yourself or others

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ascription vs. achievement

whether a role is guided by an achieved or ascribed status

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A group formed by sociologists that have no interaction w/ each other

Statistical group

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People share common characteristics like having blond hair but do not interact

Categorical groups

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A group that pursues a common interest in a structured way

Associational or organizational group - elon, volley ball team, democrats

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peer group

an informal primary group of people who interact in a personal, direct and intimate way

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Reference group

A group with which people identify and refer to in evaluating their behavior and themselves

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the process by which norms, roles and procedures are established in a group as there is an increasing attention to detail as the structure becomes more complex

Formalization

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Bureaucracies have the following characteristics

Division of labor/specialization - members trained for job
Impersonality = public and personal lives and property
Qualifications = positions based on merit not politics or personal relations

30

Iron law of oligarchy

the perspective that a formal organization would be dominated by an elite group who achieve power and promote their own interests