Flashcards in Chapter 6: Deviance and Social Control Deck (37):
Variation from a set of norms or shared social expectations. Involves a social audience that defines particular people and behaviors as going beyond the tolerance limits of social norms
Positive Functions of Deviance
-indicates extent to which norms are violated w/o a reaction
-members find a sense of community and unite against "common enemy"
- People can escape from convention norms/rid themselves of frustration towards institutions without disrupting entire social system.
- can indicate defects or inadequacies in the existing social organization
- sets in motion steps that lead to social change
Dysfunction of Deviance
-disrupt social order, ex: effect of alcoholic father on a family, teachers on strike
-disrupt the will of others to conform (if everyone is refusing to follow the rules and is not punished, less people will conform)
- destroy trust (people become dependent on legal system to define, interpret and enforce laws)
- divert resources, ex: money goes to jails and drug rehab instead of other uses
Internal means of control
Learned patterns of control that exist in the minds of individuals and make them want to conform to social norms due to their moral and social codes of behavior.
Factors: self image, self-control, frustration tolerance
External means of control
Pressures or sanctions that are applied to members of society by others
one's social self
our definitions of who we are in relation to society in which we live
Informal external controls
Positive and negative controls- such as smiling, frowning, and high fives- used to influence behavior
Formal external controls
The systems created by society specifically to control deviance
The view that deviance can be interpreted only in the sociocultural context in which it occurs, ex: is a person wearing a bathing suit at a nude beach a deviant?
A type of reasoning that implies that social problems are caused by the people facing them
Blaming the victim
Freud's theory that the human personality is made up of the id, ego and superego, and that we have 3 layers of psyche: the conscious, preconscious, and subconscious
pleasure seeking principle, constantly seeking immediate gratification since birth
refers to the internalized norms of society, what we typically think of as "conscience" or our "morality principle"
sometimes referred to as the "reality principle", the ego mediates between the drives of the individual (id) and and demands of society (superego) enabling the individual to postpone immediate gratification at times when it may be socially unacceptable
The conscious mind
part of mind that we are most aware of and contains our wants, needs and desires
just below the surface of the conscious, can be brought to the surface by a memory or experience
keeps painful memories repressed and holds our biological desires and urges well below the surface
Theories of deviance suggesting that the experience of socially induced strain, such as anomie, forces people to engage in deviant activities
When deviance arises from the incongruence between a society's emphasis on attaining certain goals and the availability of legitimate, institutionalized means of reaching those goals
happens when the values of a society or group are confused or norms break down. Making distinctions between the possible and impossible becomes impossible. (Durkheim)
Merton's 5 ways of how people adapt to a culture
Conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion
Innovator (variety of deviant behavior)
Accept social goals, but reject the acceptable means of achieving them, ex: Students who adhere to values of good grades but cheat to achieve them
Ritualist (variety of deviant behavior)
Follow rules rigidly without regard for the ends for which they are designed, ex: office manager that makes employees follow every single policy, no matter how pointless.
Retreatist (variety of deviant behavior)
Drastic mode of adaption, where people are only associated with society by living in it. Reject both cultural goals and institutional means
Ex: drug dealers, prostitutes, alcoholics
Rebel (variety of deviant behavior)
Withdraw their allegiance from a society they feel is unjust and seek to bring into being a new, greatly modified social structure.
ex: members of revolutionary movements
Conflict Theory of Deviance
The strongest group in a society have the power to define weaker groups as "deviant"
Cultural Transmission theory
The theory that a community's deviance may be transmitted to newcomers through learning and socialization
Differential association theory
The theory that deviance results when individuals have more contact with groups that define it favorably than those who define it unfavorably. Criminal activity is learned. Reactions with other deviants breed a certain set of behaviors.
Social learning theory
(Revision of Sutherlands differential association theory) - The view that deviant and conforming behaviors are strongly influenced by the consequences that follow them. Deviant behaviors are strengthened by positive sanctions.
The view that the acquisition and persistence of either deviant or conforming behavior is a function of what behaviors have been rewarded or punished. (Concept in Social Learning Theory)
Sociocultural learning theories
Theories that deal with the processes through which deviant acts are learned and the conditions under which learning takes place
A theory that emphasizes how certain behaviors are labeled "deviant" and how being given such a label influences a person's behavior
involves behavior that violate social norms but is temporary and sporadic
involves habitual violation of norms by individuals who not only consider themselves deviants but also are labeled deviant by others
Groups expressly organized to carry out illegal activities
the set of expectations associated with being male or female