Flashcards in Chapter 2: Methods of Studying Sociology Deck (25):
an abstract system of meaning that enables us to perceive a phenomenon in a particular way. They are tools that permit us to share meanings
A characteristic such as age, class or income that can vary from person to person; a concept that can have two or more values
A definition of a concept or variable such that it can be measured.
Ex: deciding what criteria defines "happiness"
A statement of the relationship between two or more concepts or variables
A statement about the relationship between variables that can be put to an empirical test
The rules and guidelines outlined and followed in social research
Research in which the researcher watches what is happening and makes no attempt to control or modify the activity being observed.
A form of descriptive research focusing on the sociology of meaning through close observation of socio-cultural phenomena
A quantitative research technique that involves asking people questions about the subject being studied
the use of existing information that was gathered or exists independently of one's own research
A scientific procedure in which at least two matched groups, differing only in the variable being studied, are used to collect and compare data. Used to determine cause and effect.
In an experiment, the group to which an independent variable is introduced, with that variable not being introduced to the control group
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the independent variable that is introduced to the experimental group
the extent to which repeated observations of the same phenomena yield similar results
Ex: Berlin Wall reactions = not repeatable = unreliable
The extent to which observations actually measure what they are supposed to.
Ex: scale can be reliable (give same weight every time) but still give an inaccurate weight, being invalid
A number of individuals or cases drawn from a larger population
A sample selected in such a way that every member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen
Obtaining a sample from a population by following a specific pattern of selection such as choosing every 10th person
Sampling in which a population is divided into groups and then subjects are chosen at random from within those groups
The procedure of systematically extracting thematic data from a wide range of communications
Research that attempts to answer the question "what" by explaining a new social phenomenon
Research that describes social reality or provides facts about the social world
Research that attempts to explain why things do or do not happen by examining the relationship between social variables
Research that measures how well a program or project works in relation to its goals