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31

Exhibitionism
- Prevalence
-Why?

strong and recurrent urges, fantasies, or behaviors of exposing of one’s genitals to unsuspecting individuals for the purpose of sexual arousal. Few cases are women and few are reported to police.
-Survey found that 4% of men (2% of women) report exposing genitals for sexual arousal.
−Men who engagne in this act do so as a means of indirectly expressing hostility toward women. They tend to be shy, lonely, dependent. Vicitms revulsion boosts their sense of master of the situation.

32

Fetishism

recurrent powerful sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors involving inaimate objects such as an article of clothing.
−Orgins can be traced to childhood

33

Transvestism

those who have recurrent and powerfule urges, fantasies, or behaviors in which they become sexually aroused by cross-dressing. Usually found among straight men. Man typically cross-dresses in private and imaginses himself to be a woman. Most married with kids.

34

Voyeurism

involves strong and recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors in which the person becomes sexually aroused by watching ppl who are nake. Does not typically seek sexual activity. Almost always occurs in men.
−Often lacking in sexual expereicne and peeping may be only form of sexual outlet

35

Frotterurism

recurrent, powerful sexual urges, fantasies, behaviors, in which the person becomes seually aroused by rubing against perons. Also called mashing and often occurs in crowded places.

36

Pedophilia
- to diagnose

recurrent and powerful sexual urges or fantasies or behaviors involving sexual activity with children (typically 13 or younger). - To be diagnosed with pedophilia disorder person must be 16 and at least 5 years older than the child toward whom the person is sexually attracted. However, the diagnosis doesn’t apply to person in late adolescence who has a continuing relationship with a 12 or 13 year old.
− Not all child molesters have pedophilic disorder; disorder is only when sexual attraction to children is equal or greater than sexual attraction to mature individuals. Some child molesters experience pedophilic urges only occasionally.
- most cases involve law-abiding respected ppl

37

Effects of sexual abuse on children (4)
1. How many before 18?
2. Frequency?
3. Sucidal behaviors?
4. Disorder?

1. Nearly 8% of adult males and nearly 20% of females report some form of sexual abuse before the age of 18
2. Frequency of sexual abuse during childhood may be 30% in girls and 15% in boys
3. those with history of child sexual abuse were between 6 and 10 times more likely to engage in suicidal behavior in adulthood.
4. Childhood sexual abuse is linked to later development of borderline personality disorder.

38

Sexual Masochism

involves strong and recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors in which the person becomes sexually aroused by being beaten or made to suffer in other ways. Disorder results in urges that are either acted on or cause distress. Found some times in women but more common in men. Some cases partner is engaged to bondage, sensory bondage. Some desire to be urinated on with verbal abuse.
- Hypoxyphilia is the most dangerous expression of sexual masochism; participants aroused by being deprived of oxygen.

39

Sexual sadism

−Recurrent, powerful sexual urges where person is aroused by inflicting physical/psychological pain on another.
−Sadistic rapist fall into this category however most rapists do not become sexual aroused by inflicting pain; many even lose interest when they see them in pain

40

Sadomasochism

sexual activites between mutual partners involving attainment of gratification by means of inflicting and receiving pain and humiliation.

41

other paraphilias (6)

− Obscene phone calls (telephone scatologia)
− Necrophilia
− Partialism (sole focus on one body part)
− Zoophilia
− Coprophilia (feces)
− Enemas (klismaphilia)
− Urine (urophilia)


42

Psychological perspective of paraphilias
- all paraphilias
- Exhibitionist
- recent theory

• See paraphilia as defenses against leftover castration anxiety from the phaillic period. Failure to successfully resolve it results in conflict; unconscious mind equates the disappearance of the penis during genital intercourse with risk of castration. At unconscious level castration anxiety promts the man to displace his sexual arousal onto safer activites like underwear, or children which can easily be controlled.
• Exhibitionists may be unconsciously seeking reassurance that his penis is secure
- suggest paraphilias may represent a temporary escape from ordinary selfhood. Objects provide temporary relief from responsiblies

43

Learning theory of paraphilias
- family role

explain paraphilias in terms of conditioning and observational learning. Some object or activity becomes inadvertanely associated with sexual arousal. The object then gains ability to elcit arousal. June Reinish speculates that earlies awareness of sexual arousal respons may have been connected with diapers. Orgasm in prescene of object reingorces erotic connection.
- Family relationships may play a role; transvestite men may have had petticoat punishment. They may be attempting to psychologically convert humiliation into mastery by achieveing erection despite being in female clothing.

44

Biological perspective of paraphilias -5

1. Higher than average sex drives in men illustrated by higher frq of sex fantasies and shorter refractory period after orgasm. • 2. Hypersexual arousal disorder and may cause some cases of paraphillias
3. Differences in brain wave patterns in response to paraphillic images and control nude images.
4. distinguish men with pedophilia from non with near 100% accuracy by measuring brain responses of fMRI to images of nude children
5. John Money traced origins of paraphilias to childhood. Suggested that childhood experiences etch a pattern in brain with he called lovemap which determindes the types of stimuli and activities that become sexually arousing. In paraphillias the love maps become distorted by early trauma.

45

Psychoanaylsis treatment of paraphilic disorders

• Attempts to bring childhood sexual conflicts into awareness so they can be resolved in light of the individuals adult personality
• Very little evidence to support

46

CBT treatment of paraphilic disorders

• Briefer and focuses directly on changing the problem behavior. Uses:
1.Aversive conditioning- goal is to induce a negative emotional response to unacceptable stimuli. Uses a conditioning model; stimuli involving children are paired with aversive stimuls in hope that person will develop a conditioned adversion towared the paraphilic stimuls.
2.Covert sensitization- variation of aversive therapy in which paraphilic fantasies are paired with aversive stimuli in imagination. Landmark study with men with pedophilia and exhibitionist were instructed to fantasize pedo or flashing scenes then aversive images are presented. In 25 year follow up, 7,275 sex offenders found that benefits had remained in men with exhibitionism but few with pedo. However, fewer than 50% of the original paricpants could be contacted.
3.Social skills training- helps person improve his ability to develop and maintain relationships with adult partners. Therapist might model a desired behabior.

47

Biomedical therapies for paraphilic disorders (2)

1. SSRI’s show progress with exhibitioinism, voyerurism and fetishism

2. Antiandrogen drugs can reduce levels of testosterone in the bloodstream. They however don’t change the stimuli that you are attracted to or completely eliminate urges

48

Rape
- emotional distress

• Emotional distress with rape victims tends to peak by about three weeks following the attack and generally remains high for a month or so before declining

49

Rape statistics
1. Military women
2. FBI stat
3. Recent study
4. Recent US estimate
5. Age range
6. Age range

1. women in military who had been raped shown psychological and physical problems a decade after the assault
2. FBI reports 90,000 forcible rapes annually in the US; however these rates are underreported because most of rapes ore not reported or prosecuted
3. found that 1 in 5 women reported being raped or expierenced attempted rape. Estimated 1.3 million women suffer rape or attempted rape annually.
4. 1 in 4 women in US will suffer rape at some point in life.
5. 2 out of 3 rapes involve young women between the ages of 11 and 24
6. 80% involve girls and young women under 25

50

Types of rape

stranger rape, acquintance, mariatal, and male

51

Acquaintance rape
1. How many this type?
2. View as rape?
3. How many raped/attempted
4. How many of college rapes with acquaintances ?
5. How many college rapes in give year?
6. Date rapes?

1. More than 4 out of 5 rapes are this type.
2. Only one-quarter of women in a large-scale national survey who were sexually assaulted viewed themselves as victims of rape (1 in 4)
3. Survey also showed that 15.4% of women have been raped or attempted.
4. Nearly 90% of rapes in college sample were cases where woman was acquainted with the assailant.
5. In any given year about 3% of college women in US suffer from rape/attempted.
6. Date rape is a type of acquaintance rape; surveys show that as many as 1 in 4 college women report rape on dates.

52

Martial rape
- prevalence

Investigators report 10-14% of married women suffer from martial rpe. Men who are better educated and less accepting of tradiotnal stertypes are less likely to commit rape.

53

Male rape
- prevalence

1-3% of men at some point in lives become victims of rape. Most men who engage in male rape are heterosexual. Their motives are domination and control, revnec. Sexual motives often absent.