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"Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders";Introduced in 1952, latest version in 2013 with 5th edition. Abnormal behaviors classified as mental disorders. Like medical model, illnesses treated like symptoms of underlying disorders. However doesn't assume ab behaviors stem from bio causes.



"International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems" most used worldwide on tenth edition. Published by WHO


Mental Disorders (3)

Emotional distress, impaired functioning, or behavior that is dangerous.


DSM V features (4)

1. It is descriptive not explanatory.
2. 20 general categories of mental disorders
3. Multiaxial framework replaced with simpler system that clinicians can use to render diagnostic judgements and identify stressful factors/disability factors.
4. dimensional component in assessment of diagnosis to expand categorical model. Gives evaluatior shades of grey and determines severity of symptoms


DSM IV (2)

1. Had with five axes or dimensions:
1/2. inventory of disorders, 3.symptoms, 4. psychosoical probs, and 5. rating scale to judge functioning.
was too difficult to navigate.

2. categorical model of classification meaning a person either does or doesn't have disorder.


Cultural bound syndrome
- two in US

occur in some cultures but not others. May reflect belief patterns of culture.
- japan mens fear of embarrassing others or offending ppl
- Anorexia and multipel P disorder



The consistency of a measure.
1. Predictive valiadity is the ability to predict the course the disorder is likely to follow.
2. internal consistency- if diff parts on test yield consistent results.
3. test retest reliabilty
4. interrater reliability rates have agreement in their ratings.


New disorder in DSM V

1. Hoarding disorder
2. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation disorder
3. mild/major neurocognive disorder.


Controversy points in DSM V (4)

1. Expansion of diagnosable disorders (Prementsrual dysphoric mood disorder and bing eating)
2. Changes in classification of mental disorders. (Aspergers)
3. Changes in diagnostic criteria for particulat disorders. (changes in definitions) (spectrum autism disorder)
4. Process of development (secrecy)


Disadvantages of the DSM

1. the utility of certain symptoms (depression now required to be two weeks)
2. Reliance on medical model- focuses too much on what may happen within person and not on external influences.
3. too much focus on categorizing psych disorders than on describing persons strengths and weaknesses.


Validity (3)

instruments must measure what the intend to.
1. content validity- degree to with its content represents the behaviors assoc with the trait in question.
2. Criterion validity- represents the degree to with the assessment tech correlates with the IV.
Sensitivity is the degree to which a test detects ppl who have the disorder. If not it is called a false negative where individuals who have disorder are not detected. Specificty refers to the degree to which the test avoids classifying disorders when they really don't. If not, false positive where ppl are classified as having disorder when they don't.
3. Construct validity- the degree to which a test corresponds to the theoretical model of the trait. Requires the results to predict other behaviors that would be expected with that model.



The negative stereotype assco with mental disorder


Methods of Assessment (5)

1. interviews
2. psychological testing
3. self report measures
4. behavioral measures
5. phsyio measures


Clinical Interview
-3 types
-topics covered (5)

Most used assessment. leads to a diagnostic impression by matching problems with a set of diagnostic criteria. Face to face contact. Interviews are either structured, semi, or unstructured.
1. identifies data- of sociodemographic characteristics
2. description of the problems
3. psychosocial history
4. Medical psychiatric history
5. medical problems


Psychological Tests

structured assessment used to evaluate reasonably stable traits like intelligence or personality. Two major types: Intelligence and Personality


Intelligence tests

Used to help diagnose intellectual disability. Help provide a profile of the clients intellectual strengths and weaknesses to help make a treatment plan. Scores expressed as intelligence quotient. 100 is defined as the mean. IQ is based on the deviation of a persons scored to the norm.


David Wechsler

inventor of the most used intelligence tests today. Defined intelligence as a. way ppl mentally represent the world and b. way we adapt to its demands. Distributed IQ scores so that 50% would lie within avg 90 to 110

Ppl who get above 130 are labeled very superior and below 70 as intellectually deficient.


Alfred Binet

Developed first formal intelligence test. In 1904, told to make test to identify MR children. Theodore simon helped him.


Personality tests: Objective (2)

self report, requires responding to specific questions. Limit the range of possible responses.


Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory

Developed in 1930s to 40s. MMPI2 contains more than 567 T/F statements. divided up into scales, a score of 65 or higher on a scale is considered clinically significant. Also includes validity scales that assess clients tendencies to distort test responses in a favorable faking good or bad. Content scales measure specific complaints and concerns. Not tied to DSM so cannont establish a diagnosis.



descriptions of ppl who usually attain various profiles as seen in MMI2



The Milon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory developed to help clinicians form diagnoses espicallaly for ppl with personality disorders.


Personality tests: Projective (2)

No clear specified response. Clients presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to respond. Thses tests derive form psychodynamics belief that people imps or project their own pscy not their interpretations of ambiguous stimuli. Unlike objective tests allows us to see into unconscious.
- Roschach inkblot -TAT


The Rorschach Inkblot Test
-norm result?

developed by swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rochschach. Ten blots are used. Clinicians then make interpretations on the content of the responses.
Reality testing- is when a response is consistent with the contours of the blot. Means they are able to perceive the world accurately and distinguish reality from fantasy.


The Thematic Apperception Test

developed by Henry Murray in 1930s. Apperception means interpreting on the basis of existing ideas and past experience. Consists of cards with ambiguous scene. Assumed that clients responses will reflect their experiences. Believe that theorists will identify with the protagonists.


Neuropsychological Assessment (2)

involves the use of tests to determine wither psych problems reflect underlying neuro impairment or brain damage. Two types: The bender Visual Gestalt test and the half stead reitan neuropsych battery.


The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test

One of the first neuropsych tests to be used. Consists of geometric figures and various gestalt illustrations. Client copies them and signs of possible damage include rotation, distortion, or mishap of the figure. Then asked to reproduce figures from memory. Now more sophisticated tests like the battery.


The Halfstead-Reitan Neuropschological Battery.

Developed by Ralph Reitan, measures perceptual intellectual and motors sills. Includes the following subtests: The category test, the rhythm test, the tactual performance test.


Behavioral assessment
-3 things Behaviorists do?

Treats test results as maples of behavior that occur in specific situations rather than signs of underlying personality traits. According to behaviorists, behavior is determine by environment not traits.
1. Functional analysis- an an analysis of the problem behavior in relation to stimulus guest that trigger it.
2. Behavioral interview- posing questions to learn more about the history of the problem behavior.
3. Direct Observation- the hallmark of BA, clinicians observe and quantify the problem behavior. Use of behavior coding systems.


Potential problems with behavioral assessment
1. reactivity
2. observer drift.

1. 1. the tendency for the behavior being observed to be influenced by the way in which it is measured.
2. Tendency of observers to deviate form the coding system.