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Biological Perspective

Focuses on the biological underlings of abnormal behavior and the use of bio based approaches like drug therapy. Gave rise to the med model. Focuses on heredity and nervous system


Parts of the neuron

1. dendrites- short fibers that project from cell to receive messages
2. axon- projects trunklike from cell body. Extend several feet
3. terminals- at end of axon, release NeuroTs into cleft
myelin sheath- covering that speeds transmission of impulses
4. synapse- junction between neuron



chemical substances, induce chemical changes in receiving neurons that cause axons to conduct the message in electrical form.



reabsorption of neuroT, by axon terminal to prevent firing


Neurotransmitters associated with following disorders:
1. Alzheimers
2. Schizo
3. Depression
4.. Depression/eating disorders

1. Acetycholine
2. Dopamine
3. Norepinephrine
4. Serotionin


Central nervous system

brain and spinal cord, controls bodily functions and higher mental functions like sensation, perception, and p solving. Includes forebrain, hindbrain, and midbrain.


Hindbrain (3)

1. Medulla- vital life support functions (heart rate, blood pressure, respiration)
2. Pons- transmits info about body movement and is involved in sleep, attention, and respiration.
3. cerebellum- regulates balance and motor behavior.


Peripheral Nervous system

made of nerves that receive and transmit sensory messages to the brain and spinal cord and transmits messages to the muscles/ glands. Made up of somatic and autonomic systems


Mid brain (1)

RAS- starts in hindbrain and extends to forebrain. A web of neurons that help regulate sleep, attention, arousal.


Forebrain (4)

1. Thalamus- relays sensory info (visual/tactile) to the higher regions of the brain. Also helps RAS with sleep and attention.
2. hypothalamus- tiny, vital body functions ( regulation of body temp, fluids in blood, reproductive processes, emotional and motivational states).
3. Basil ganglia- regulates postural movements and coordination
4. Cerebrum- higher mental function like p solving and thinking. gives round shape of head.


limbic system

hypothala, thala, and other structures make up this. Helps with emotional and memory.


Cerebral Cortex

Surface area of cerebrum; the thinking planning and excutive center. The consciousness and sense of self. Use of language. Two masses: left/right hemisphere. each has four lobes:
Occiptal, Tempora(audio), Parietal(touch), Frontal(muscle movements).


Huntington's disease

caused by deterioration of the basil; a degenerative disease that can lead to disturbance of mood and paranoia and dementia.


Somatic nervous system

transmits messages from sensory organs to brain; leads to sensations, and movement.


autonomic nervous syste

regulates glands and involuntary process such as heart rate, breathing, digestion, dilation of pupils. Two parts:
1. Sympathetic- processes that mobilize body during stress, draws energy, accelerates heart rate, breathing. Causes fear and anxiety.
2. Parasym- decelerates the heart, replenishes, like digestion.


psychological perspective
- when?
- includes?

came about in 19th century; includes behaviorist, humanistic, congnitivist. All psychodynamics theories


Psychoanalytic theory

Freuds belief that roots of psych problems involve unconscious motives and conflicts that come from childhood. Abnormal behavior is the symptoms of these struggles in the unconscious mind.


Structure of peronsality: pyshcic structures

ID- basic drives; pleasure principle that demands instant gratification.
EGO- develops to cope with frustration. Curbs id to keep with social customs. Operates on reality principle.
SUPEREGO- develops at age 5, internalization of moral standards of parents. If ego has fail it emits shame/ guilt.


Defense mechanisms

Ego uses to prevent socially unacceptable impulses from rising into consciousness.


Stages of psychosexual development

1. oral
2. anal
3. phallic
3. latent
4. genital



Freud called this the major life instance; the basic drive to preserve and perpetuate life. The energy within it is called libido which is expressed thru erogenous zones.


Carl Jung

Psychodynamic theorists who developed analytical psychology. Incorped self awareness and self direction. We have a personal unconscious which is full of repressed memories and impulses. Collective unconscious is archetypes or primitive images that reflect the history of our species


Alfred Adler

Psychodynamic theorists we are driven by an inferiority complex/ We drive for superiority and social dominance (devotion to helping ppl). Creative self is a self aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome things and reach potential. Shifted from id to ego. Developed individual therapy.


Karen Horney

Psychodynamic theorists, stressed the importance of child parent relationships. Basic anxiety is where child feels alone and helpless. Basic Hostility is feelings of resentment towards parents, could be bc they fear losing parents. BasicHostile is more anxiety producing.


Heinz Hartman

originator of ego psychology which posits that the ego has energy and motives of its own (we seek education)


Erik Erikson

Psychodynamic theorists; focused on psychosocial development. Importance of social relationships and formation of personal identity. Greatest challenge faced by adults is the development of ego identity, a clear sense of who you are.


Margaret Mahler

Psychodynamic theorists; created object relation theory focusing on how children develop symbolic representations of parents. We introject and incorp our own personalities with parents. We may become unable to see real selves. aim is to help separate own ideas and feeling from introjections.



loss of touch with reality, bizarre behavior with hallucinations, incoherent speed, bizarre posturing and gestures. Caused by id spilling over to weak ego.


Learning based models(3)

took shape in 20th century. behavioral perspectives, cognitive perspective, social cognitive


behavioral perspective

identified with Ivan Pavlov and John B Watson, the father of behaviorism. Focuses on role of learning in both abnormal and normal behavior. Abnormal behavior is the acquisition or learning of maladaptive behavior. Watson, and Skinner believed human behavior is a product of our genetics and environmental influence. Believe we should limit study to behavior rather than underlying motivations. Two forms of learning: classical and operant.