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1

Health psychologists

study interrelationships between psychological factors including stress, and physical health.

2

Stress

Pressures or demands placed on organisms to adapt or adjust.

3

Stressor

a source of stress; include psychological factors, life changes, daily hassles, and environment factors

4

Distress

a state of physical or mental pain or suffering

5

American Psychological Association nationwide poll of stress

half of americans reported that their level of stress had increased during the preceding five years;
one third said they face extreme levels of stress

6

Psychoneuroimmunology

studies relationship between psychological factors like stress and the workings of the immune system.

7

endocrine system

Body's system of glands that release their secretions called hormones into bloodstream.

8

Hormones

substances that regulate bodily functions and promote growth and development

9

Hypothalamus

endocrine gland, small structure in brain that releases hormones that stimulate the nearby pituitary gland to secrete adrencoricotrophic hormone.

10

ACTH

adrenocorticotrophic hormone; when secreted stimulates the adrenal glands with are located above the kidneys

11

Cortical steriods

activated by the adrenal cortex, hormones that: boost resistance, develop muscles, induce liver to release sugar which provides energy to respond to stressor. Also help fight against allergic reactions and inflammation.

12

Adrenal medulla

sympathetic branch stimulates this inner layer of adrenal gland; releases a mixture of epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). These chemicals function as hormones when in bloodstream.

13

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

mobilize the body to deal with threatening stressor by accelerating the heart rate and stimulating the liver to release stored glucose.

14

Immune system

Body's system of defense.

15

Leukocytes
-pathogens

AKA white blood cells; envelop and kill pathogens by recognizing their surface fragments (antigens) (antibody generators)
-bacteria, viruses, fungi, cancerous cells

16

Antibodies

produced by leuk's; specialized proteins that lock into position on an antigen marking it for destruction by specialized lymphocytes

17

Lymphocytes
-memory lymphocytes

type of leuk
- held in reserve, remain in bloodstream for years and form the basis for a quick immune response to an invader the second time around.

18

How does stress translate into physical health?

inflammation. Under stress body's inflammatory response is less capable of toning down the inflammatory response leading to persistent inflammation that can contribute to the development of many disorders like CVD, asthma, and arthritis.

19

Michigan study

showed that sucide attempts increased in months following 9/11

20

NYC parents

more than 60% reported children upset by 9/11

21

GAS

General Adaption Syndrome developed by Hans Seyle describes a common bio response patter to prolonged or excessive stress. Suggests are body are like alarm clocks and do not shut off until energy is depleted.
3 stages: alarm reaction, resistance stage, and exhaustion stage

22

Alarm reaction

of the GAS;triggered by perception of immediate stressor, mobilizes body to prep for stress, body activates the sympathetic nervous system which increases arousal and releases stress hormones.

23

fight or flight reaction

term by Walter Cannon to define the response of the alarm reaction. adrenal glands pump out cortical steroids and stress hormones that mobilize body's defenses.

24

Stress-related changes in body during Alarm
- 6

1. coricosteriods released
2. epinephrine and norepoinphrine released
3. muscles tense
4. blood shifts from internal organs to muscles
5. sugar is released by the liver
6. blood clotting ability is increased.

25

Resistance stage

of the GAS; progress to this stage when stress is persistent, AKA the adaption stage. Endocrine and sympathetic system responses remain at high levels. During this stage the body tries to renew spent energy and repair damage.

26

Exhaustion stage

of the GAS; progresses to this stage when stressors continues or new ones happen. Dominance of the parasympathetic branch, heart and respiration rate decreases.

27

Diseases of adaption

happens if the source of stress persist, yet we respite. Include allergic reactions to heart disease or death.

28

Disadvantage of cortical steriods

Continuous secretion weakens the immune system by disrupting production of antibodies.

29

Life changes

way to quantify life stress, AKA life events. Sources of stress bc they force us to adjust. Can be positive or negative.

30

acculturation

the process of adaptation by which immigrants, natives, minorities adjust to new culture through behavior or attitudinal changes.