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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (53):
1

First Gap Phase

-cell grows
-cell performs normal functions

2

Synthesis

-DNA replication

3

Second Gap Phase

-cell grows
-cell prepares to divide

4

Prophase

-1st phase of mitosis
-spindle fibers form
-nuclear membrane disappears
-chromosomes uncoil into sister chromatids

5

Metaphase

-2nd phase of mitosis
-spindle fibers attach to centromeres
-sister chromatids line up in middle of cell

6

Anaphase

-3rd phase of mitosis
-chromatids pulled to opposite ends of cell
-sister chromatids are separated

7

Telophase

-4th phase of mitosis
-spindle fibers disappear
-nuclear membrane forms
-chromatids uncoil

8

Cytokinesis

-cytoplasm separated
-cell membrane pinches inward

9

process of nuclear division; steps of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

mitosis

10

protein around which DNA is wrapped

histone

11

DNA molecule wrapped around histone cores

nucleosome

12

uncoiled form of DNA: present during interphase

chromatin

13

segment of DNA

chromosome

14

thick, coiled strand of DNA: present during mitosis

chromatid

15

connects sister chromatids

centromere

16

sections of DNA that code for RNA and proteins

genes

17

part of cell cycle; cell grows and prepares to divide; consists of G1, S, G2 phases; most of cell's life

interphase

18

cytoplasm and membrane separate; results in two identical daughter cells

cytokinesis

19

organelle that produces the spindle fibers

centrosome

20

microtubules that attach to and move the chromatids during mitosis

spindle

21

group of severe and potentially fatal diseases that are caused by uncontrolled cell growth

cancer

22

mass of rapidly dividing cancer cells; can invade and destroy nearby tissues

tumor

23

tumor that can spread to other body parts

malignant

24

tumor that remains localized

benign

25

piece of tumor breaks away and spreads to other part(s) of the body

metastasis

26

why do cells divide

to grow more tissue, replaced damaged or dead cells, to keep from getting to big

27

how is DNA packaged in the nucleus

package in different forms (chromatin, chromatids) depending on the phase of the cell cycle

28

how are prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA different

prokaryotic: single loop of DNA
eukaryotic: several linear molecules of DNA

29

how do cells prepare for division

DNA is replicated and special structures are formed to help with division

30

how do prokaryotic cells divide

-DNA replicated
-Cell membrane pinches between copies of DNA
-Cell grows; nearly doubling in size
-Cell wall forms and pinches in the middle
-Cell separates completely into two cells

31

what factors control cell growth and division

-checkpoints are points in the cell cycle when a feedback signal is required
-proper cell size and structures can affect cell growth and division at checkpoints

32

how do feedback signals affect the cell cycle

feedback signals cause the cell cycle to proceed to the next stop or pause

33

checks for appropriate size and structures

G1 checkpoint

34

checks for accurate replication of DNA

G2 checkpoint

35

checks for proper attachments of spindle fibers to centromeres

mitosis checkpoint

36

what ways are there to treat cancer

-surgery
-chemotherapy
-radiation

37

a segment of DNA that codes for RNA and protein is a

gene

38

which is a substance consisting of DNA and protein

chromatin

39

uncoiled version of chromosomes

chromatin

40

the repeated sequence of growth and division during the life of a cell is called

the cell cycle

41

the first three phases of the life cycle are called

interphase

42

what is the process during which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei

mitosis

43

the phase of cell division when the cytoplasm is divided is called

cytokinesis

44

during cell division, each single strand of DNA becomes fully condensed in the form of a

chromatid

45

uncoiled

chromatin

46

coiled

chromatid

47

a type of protein found in eukaryotic chromosomes but not prokaryotic is

histone

48

during cell division, sister chromatids are separated at the

centromere

49

which of these is a network of microtubules that forms during mitosis to pull chromatids to opposite ends of a cell

spindle

50

a group of severe and sometimes fatal diseases caused by uncontrolled cell growth

cancer

51

a mass of defective cells that divide rapidly is a

tumor

52

cell growth and division depend on

protein signals and environmental signals

53

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