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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (60):
1

the process some organisms are able to use by which they convert light to chemical energy

photosynthesis

2

the main method photosynthesizing organisms use for carbon dioxide fixation

Calvin cycle

3

a set of chemical reactions that break down pyruvate, producing electron carriers for an electron transport chain that powers ATP production

Krebs cycle

4

the process cells use to produce energy from carbohydrates

cellular respiration

5

a substance that absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects others, giving something its color

pigment

6

the green substance that absorbs light and provides energy for photosynthesis

chlorophyll

7

disc-shaped sacs in chloroplasts where photosynthesis occurs

thylakoid

8

the series of molecules in the inner membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria down which excited electons pass, releasing energy for ATP production

electron transport chain

9

process by which NAD* is recycled under anaerobic conditions in order to continue the break down of carbohydrates to supply energy for producing ATP

fermentation

10

adenosine triphosphate, a substance that stores and releases energy for most cell processes

ATP

11

describes a process that requires oxygen

aerobic

12

describes a process that does not require oxygen

anaerobic

13

the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the absence of oxygen, producing a small amount of ATP

glycolysis

14

the enzyme that aids in the production of adenosine triphosphat and which also acts as a carrier protein for hydrogen ions in active transport across a membrane

ATP synthase

15

What is the main fuel for cellular respiration?

glucose

16

What step of cellular respiration uses 2ATP to make 4ATP

glycolysis

17

Where does photosynthesis occur

chloroplasts

18

What is produced during cellular respiration?

oxygen

19

herbivore

plant eater

20

carnivore

flesh/meat eater

21

omnivore

all eaters (eat both)

22

What type of organism can produce its own food?

autotroph

23

What type of organism can NOT make make its own food?

heterotroph

24

During ATP synthase a phosphate group is added to a molecule of .... resulting in ATP.

ADP

25

stroma

...

26

pyruvate

...

27

Why do all organisms need energy?

to maintain homeostasis

28

inputs and outputs of photosynthesis

inputs: carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)
outputs: glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2)

29

where does photosynthesis occur?

chloroplasts

30

6 CO2 + 6H2O -light energy-> C6H12O6 + 6O2

photosynthesis

31

inputs and outputs of cellular respiration

inputs: glucose and oxygen
outputs: carbon dioxide and water

32

Where does cellular respiration occur?

mitochondria

33

plants, algae, and some bacteria

autotrophs

34

turtle, cow, bunny

heterotroph; herbivores

35

sharks, tigers

heterotroph; carnivores

36

humans, bears

heterotrophs; ominvores

37

example of a food chain (from Sun)

Sun --> grass --> rabbit --> hawk

38

what absorbs light during photosynthesis?

chlorophyll

39

Where do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur?

thylakoid membranes

40

Where do the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis occur?

...

41

inputs and outputs of the light-dependent reactions?

inputs: water (H2O) and light energy
outputs: oxygen (O2), NADPH, and ATP

42

inputs and outputs of the light-independent reactions?

inputs: carbon dioxide (CO2), NADPH, and ATP
outputs: glucose

43

NADPH?, NADH, FADH

electron carriers

44

carbon fixation

light-independent reactions

45

What kind of organisms undergo cellular respiration?

all organisms

46

Glycolysis

input: one glucose molecule
output: two pyruvate molecules
(2ATP --> 4ATP) (net gain: 2ATP) (+2electron carriers)

47

Kreb's Cycle

inputs: oxygen and pyruvate
outputs (per glucose): 2ATP, electron carriers, CO2
(electron carriers proceed to electron transport chain)

48

Electron Transport Chain

inputs: electons power H* ion pumps = H* gradient
output: up to 34? ATP
(H* combine with oxygen and electrons to form water)

49

Fermentation

-oxygen not available
-produces ATP
Lactic Acid Fermentation or Alcohol Fermentation

50

Lactic Acid Fermentation

-performed by animals (including humans)
-produces lactic acid

51

Alcohol Fermentation

-performed by yeasts
-produces ethyl alcohol and CO2

52

aerobic pathway:

glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain

53

anaerobic pathway:

glycolysis, fermentaion

54

Which method is more effective, produces more ATP per glucose molecle

aerobic

55

ATP to ADP system

1. one phosphate group is removed, ADP is formed and energy is released
2. energy can also be restored in ATP be reattaching a phosphate

56

Adenosine diphosphate

ADP

57

ATP to ADP system 1

ATP -break bond-> ADP + P +energy(released)

58

ATP to ADP system 2

ADP + P + energy(stored) -make bond-> ATP

59

adenosine triphosphate

ATP

60

what is the main energy source for cellular activities?

ATP