Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (60):
the process some organisms are able to use by which they convert light to chemical energy
the main method photosynthesizing organisms use for carbon dioxide fixation
a set of chemical reactions that break down pyruvate, producing electron carriers for an electron transport chain that powers ATP production
the process cells use to produce energy from carbohydrates
a substance that absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects others, giving something its color
the green substance that absorbs light and provides energy for photosynthesis
disc-shaped sacs in chloroplasts where photosynthesis occurs
the series of molecules in the inner membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria down which excited electons pass, releasing energy for ATP production
electron transport chain
process by which NAD* is recycled under anaerobic conditions in order to continue the break down of carbohydrates to supply energy for producing ATP
adenosine triphosphate, a substance that stores and releases energy for most cell processes
describes a process that requires oxygen
describes a process that does not require oxygen
the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the absence of oxygen, producing a small amount of ATP
the enzyme that aids in the production of adenosine triphosphat and which also acts as a carrier protein for hydrogen ions in active transport across a membrane
What is the main fuel for cellular respiration?
What step of cellular respiration uses 2ATP to make 4ATP
Where does photosynthesis occur
What is produced during cellular respiration?
all eaters (eat both)
What type of organism can produce its own food?
What type of organism can NOT make make its own food?
During ATP synthase a phosphate group is added to a molecule of .... resulting in ATP.
Why do all organisms need energy?
to maintain homeostasis
inputs and outputs of photosynthesis
inputs: carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)
outputs: glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2)
where does photosynthesis occur?
6 CO2 + 6H2O -light energy-> C6H12O6 + 6O2
inputs and outputs of cellular respiration
inputs: glucose and oxygen
outputs: carbon dioxide and water
Where does cellular respiration occur?
plants, algae, and some bacteria
turtle, cow, bunny
example of a food chain (from Sun)
Sun --> grass --> rabbit --> hawk
what absorbs light during photosynthesis?
Where do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur?
Where do the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis occur?
inputs and outputs of the light-dependent reactions?
inputs: water (H2O) and light energy
outputs: oxygen (O2), NADPH, and ATP
inputs and outputs of the light-independent reactions?
inputs: carbon dioxide (CO2), NADPH, and ATP
NADPH?, NADH, FADH
What kind of organisms undergo cellular respiration?
input: one glucose molecule
output: two pyruvate molecules
(2ATP --> 4ATP) (net gain: 2ATP) (+2electron carriers)
inputs: oxygen and pyruvate
outputs (per glucose): 2ATP, electron carriers, CO2
(electron carriers proceed to electron transport chain)
Electron Transport Chain
inputs: electons power H* ion pumps = H* gradient
output: up to 34? ATP
(H* combine with oxygen and electrons to form water)
-oxygen not available
Lactic Acid Fermentation or Alcohol Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
-performed by animals (including humans)
-produces lactic acid
-performed by yeasts
-produces ethyl alcohol and CO2
glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain
Which method is more effective, produces more ATP per glucose molecle
ATP to ADP system
1. one phosphate group is removed, ADP is formed and energy is released
2. energy can also be restored in ATP be reattaching a phosphate
ATP to ADP system 1
ATP -break bond-> ADP + P +energy(released)
ATP to ADP system 2
ADP + P + energy(stored) -make bond-> ATP