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Flashcards in Semester One Finals Deck (103):
1

possible explanation to question/problem; based on prior knowledge; tested in experiment

hypothesis

2

something that changes or varies in an experiment

variable

3

variable that is changed by the scientist; in the egg lab, the type of solution was independent

independent

4

variable that changes because of independent; in the egg lab, the mass of the egg was dependent

dependent

5

data that does NOT have numbers; examples include color, shape, etc.

qualitative

6

data that has numbers; examples include mass, height, length

quantitative

7

broad scientific explanation that is based on lots of evidence

theory

8

study of living things and their interactions

biology

9

maintaining a stable internal environment

homeostasis

10

all of the chemical reactions that occur inside the body of a living thing

metabolism

11

a single living thing

organism

12

reacting to the environment

responsiveness

13

passing the genetic information from one generation to the next

heredity

14

producing offspring

reproduction

15

single-celled organism

unicellular

16

organism with two or more cells; usually millions of cells (like humans)

multicellular

17

result of reproduction; "babies"

offspring

18

study of plants

botany

19

study of animals

zoology

20

study of microscopic organisms

microbiology

21

study of the body

physiology

22

simplest chemical substance

element

23

combination of two or more different elements; examples: CO2, H2O, etc.

compound

24

substance with pH below 7

acid

25

substance with pH above 7

base

26

substance with pH equal to 7

neutral

27

substances that are made in a chemical reaction

products

28

substances that are the starting materials (ingredients) of a chemical reaction

reactants

29

used for short-term energy; building block is monosaccharides

carbohydrate

30

used for long-term energy; building blocks depend on the type of lipid

lipid

31

used for structure and enzymes; building blocks are amino acids

proteins

32

used to pass on genetic information; building blocks are nucleotide

nucleic acid

33

protein that helps start biochemical reactions; lowers the activation energy

enzyme

34

evenly mixed substances; examples: Kool-Aid, salt water, etc.

solution

35

simple cells; have single loop of DNA without a nucleus; bacteria

prokaryotic

36

complex cells; have a nucleus and organelles; many linear DNA molecules; animals, plants, etc.

eukaryotic

37

structure that controls cell functions; contains DNA

nucleus

38

found in nucleus; produces ribosomes

nucleolus

39

produces proteins

ribosomes

40

has ribosomes attached to it; produces and transports proteins

rough ER

41

NO ribosomes attached to it; produces and transports lipids

smooth ER

42

sorts and packages proteins

Golgi apparatus

43

transports substances in and out of cells

vesicle

44

contains digestive enzymes to break down substances in the cell

lysosomes

45

container; usually for water

vacuole

46

site of photosynthesis; found only in plant cells

chloroplast

47

site of cellular respiration; produces energy for the cell (from food molecules)

mitochondrion

48

substance that is dissolved in a solution; in salt water, the salt is the solute

solute

49

substance that the solute is dissolved into; in salt water, the water is the solvent

solvent

50

strength of a solution; tells us how much solute is dissolved in solutions

concentration

51

difference in concentration; area of high concentration and area of low concentration

gradient

52

movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low; remember food coloring in water

diffusion

53

molecule that makes up cell membrane; polar phosphorus head; non-polar tails

phospholipid

54

movement of water across a membrane; remember egg lab

osmosis

55

high concentration outside cell; like egg in corn syrup; water will flow mostly out of cell

hypertonic

56

low concentration outside cell; like egg in water; water will flow mostly into cell

hypotonic

57

equal concentrations in and out of cell; water will flow in and out of cell

isotonic

58

does not require energy; moves substances from high to low; diffusion and osmosis

passive transport

59

requires energy; moves substances from low to high; endo/exocytosis, pumps

active transport

60

moving large substances out of the cell with vesicles

exocytosis

61

moving large substances into cell with vesicles

endocytosis

62

converting energy fro light into food; occurs only in plants, algae, and some bacteria

photosynthesis

63

releasing energy from food molecules; occurs in all living things

cellular respiration

64

organism that can create its own food, as in photosynthesis; examples include plants

autotroph

65

organism that must eat other organisms to get energy; examples include animals

heterotroph

66

animal that eats only plants; cows are in this category

herbivore

67

animal that eats only other animals; lions are in this category

carnivore

68

animal that eats both plants and other animals; humans are in this category

omnivore

69

molecule system that is used for energy; ATP has energy stored; energy released when it breaks

ATP-ADP

70

molecule that absorbs some color of light and reflects others

pigment

71

pigment found in leaves of plants; traps sunlight during photosynthesis

chlorophyll

72

respiration that requires oxygen; produces more ATP than anaerobic

aerobic

73

respiration that does not require oxygen; fermentation is an example

anaerobic

74

part of cell cycle when cells grow and prepare to divide; includes G1, S, G2

interphase

75

first phase of mitosis; nuclear membrane disappears, chromosomes coil, spindle fibers form

prophase

76

second phase or mitosis; sister chromatids line up in the middle of the cell

metaphase

77

third phase of mitosis; sister chromatids are pulled apart and to opposite sides of cell

anaphase

78

fourth phase of mitosis; nuclear membranes form; chromosomes uncoil; spindle fibers disappear

telophase

79

final phase of cell cycle; divides cell into two separate daughter cells

cytokinesis

80

process of cell division

mitosis

81

DNA molecule

chromosome

82

coiled chromosome and its copy

sister chromatids

83

DNA makes a copy of itself; occurs during the S phase (of interphase)

replication

84

group of diseases caused by uncontrolled cell growth and reproduction

cancer

85

process of cell division that creates gametes

meiosis

86

reproduction that involves two parents and gametes; results in genetically diverse offspring

sexual

87

reproduction from one parent; results in offspring that are genetically same as the parent

asexual

88

sex cell (egg or sperm)

gamete

89

result of fertilization (combination of egg and sperm); single diploid cell

zygote

90

chromosomes that are same shape, size, and genes

homologous chromosomes

91

two sets of chromosomes

diploid

92

one set of chromosomes

haploid

93

chromosomes that do NOT control gender; humans have 22 of them

autosomes

94

random mixing of parents' chromosomes during meiosis I

independent assortment

95

male gamete

sperm

96

female gamete; also called egg

ovum

97

combination of egg and sperm

fertilization

98

asexual reproduction; offspring created from a fragment of the parent

fragmentation

99

asexual reproduction; offspring starts like a branch off of the parent; separates when ready

budding

100

asexual reproduction; offspring develops from an unfertilized egg

parthenogenesis

101

asexual reproduction; offspring the result of parent splitting into two cells

binary fission

102

What events of meiosis are responsible for genetic diversity?

crossing over, independent assortment, random fertilization

103

how many chromosomes are in diploid and haploid cells of humans

diploid: 46
haploid: 23