Flashcards in Chapter 34 Deck (66):
a cell that can develop into many different types of cells
the basic building blocks of every living organism
how are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells?
Embryonic stem cells are harvested from eggs that were fertilized in the laboratory and donated for research (human embryo is destroyed to obtain them) and adult stem cells used in research are taken from adult tissue
tissue that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
ex: skin and the lining of the respiratory system
tissue of the nervous system, including neurons and their supporting cells
carries information throughout the body
a tissue that connects and supports other tissues
ex: fat, cartilage, bone, tendons, blood
the tissue made of cells that can contract and relax to produce movement
what are the three types of muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle
what are the functions of the skeletal system?
to protect and support the body and organs; to work with skeletal muscles; to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
What are the two divisions of the skeletal system
the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
forms the central axis of the body
includes: the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum
includes the appendages
including: shoulders, arms, hips, and legs
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a common function
how is the human body organized?
cells, tissues, organs, organ stystems
structures made of two or more types of tissue that work together to perform a specific function
a group of organs that work together to carry out the major processes of the body
what bones make up the pectoral girdle?
the scapulae and the clavicles
What makes up the pelvic girdle?
the ilium, ischium, and pubis
What are the four basic bone shapes?
long, short, flat, and irregular
the steady internal environment that your body maintains, despite changes in the external environment
a system in which the results of a process provide the signal for the process to stop
-early stage of embryonic stem cells
-have potential to become entire human
-later stage embryonic stem cells
-can become all tissues; NOT entire human
-adult stem cells
-can only become part of tissue from which they are derived
bone made of tightly packed mature bone cells called osteocytes
bones are covered by a tough membrane called the ...
What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone?
compact bone is tightly packed osteocytes and sponge bone is less tightly packed and the space is filled by bone marrow
soft tissue inside bones that produces blood cells
red bone marrow
soft tissue inside bones that stores fat
yellow bone marrow
a mature bone cell that maintains the mineral content of bones
a type of connective tissue that cushions joints, makes up flexible body parts (ears and nose), and serves as a template for bone formation
cancer of the blood-forming organs
a condition in which bones become brittle and are easily broken
a place where two or more bones meet
how are joints classified?
by their structure and by the way they move
what are the types of joints
immovable joint - skull
slightly movable joint - spine & rib cage
freely movable joints - joints of appendages
what is the difference between an open and closed fracture
a type of connective tissue that holds together the bones in a joint
injury to joint when a joint is bet to far or in the wrong direction
a disease from the result of cartilage protecting joints is damaged
a common disorder in athletes and musicians in which the Bursae sacs become swollen and painful
what are the functions of the muscular system
muscles move the body from place to place; to move substances through the body; to provide structure and support
a tough connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
a muscle that bends a joint
a muscle that extends a joint
the only type of muscle you can control
the type of muscle you cannot control its movement
what are the differences between the types of muscle tissue?
-attached to bones; responsible for movement
-cells have many nuclei & striations
-lines walls of blood vessels, digestive organs, uterus & bladder
-cells have one nucleus; interlaced in sheets
-one nucleus & striated
What is the difference between fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers
fast-twitch : resist fatigue; produce little force
slow-twitch : produces great force; fatigue quickly
What are the functions of the integumentary system
to protect against injury, infection, and fluid loss; to help regulate body temperature
What gives skin its color?
What is the relationship between UV radiation and melanin?
melanin absorbs UV radiation, which can damage DNA and cause skin cancer. When the skin is exposed to UV rays, skin cells produce more melanin
the condition in which muscle mass is lost
tendons that are repeatedly stressed can become inflamed resulting in ...
the outer layer of cells
(outer layer of skin)
the layer of skin below the epidermis
the layer of cells beneath the dermis
oily secretion of the sebaceous glands
a pigment the helps determine skin and hair color
a hard protein that makes up hair and nails
a hereditary skin disorder that causes red, scaly patches
type of skin cancer that develops in epidermal cells that do not produce malenin
cancer that occurs in pigment-producing epidermal cells
nails grow from an area of the nail called the ...