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Flashcards in Chapter 34 Deck (66):
1

a cell that can develop into many different types of cells

stem cell

2

the basic building blocks of every living organism

cell

3

how are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells?

Embryonic stem cells are harvested from eggs that were fertilized in the laboratory and donated for research (human embryo is destroyed to obtain them) and adult stem cells used in research are taken from adult tissue

4

tissue that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity

ex: skin and the lining of the respiratory system

Epithelial Tissue

5

tissue of the nervous system, including neurons and their supporting cells
carries information throughout the body

Nervous Tissue

6

a tissue that connects and supports other tissues

ex: fat, cartilage, bone, tendons, blood

connective tissue

7

the tissue made of cells that can contract and relax to produce movement

muscle tissue

8

what are the three types of muscle tissue

skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle

9

what are the functions of the skeletal system?

to protect and support the body and organs; to work with skeletal muscles; to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

10

What are the two divisions of the skeletal system

the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton

11

axial system

forms the central axis of the body

includes: the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum

12

appendicular skeleton

includes the appendages

including: shoulders, arms, hips, and legs

13

a group of similar cells that work together to perform a common function

tissue

14

how is the human body organized?

cells, tissues, organs, organ stystems

15

structures made of two or more types of tissue that work together to perform a specific function

organ

16

a group of organs that work together to carry out the major processes of the body

organ system

17

what bones make up the pectoral girdle?

the scapulae and the clavicles

18

What makes up the pelvic girdle?

the ilium, ischium, and pubis

19

What are the four basic bone shapes?

long, short, flat, and irregular

20

the steady internal environment that your body maintains, despite changes in the external environment

homeostasis

21

a system in which the results of a process provide the signal for the process to stop

negative feedback

22

-early stage of embryonic stem cells
-have potential to become entire human

totipotent

23

-later stage embryonic stem cells
-can become all tissues; NOT entire human

pluripotent

24

-adult stem cells
-can only become part of tissue from which they are derived

multipotent

25

bone made of tightly packed mature bone cells called osteocytes

compact bone

26

bones are covered by a tough membrane called the ...

periosteum

27

What is the difference between compact bone and spongy bone?

compact bone is tightly packed osteocytes and sponge bone is less tightly packed and the space is filled by bone marrow

28

soft tissue inside bones that produces blood cells

red bone marrow

29

soft tissue inside bones that stores fat

yellow bone marrow

30

a mature bone cell that maintains the mineral content of bones

osteocyte

31

a type of connective tissue that cushions joints, makes up flexible body parts (ears and nose), and serves as a template for bone formation

cartilage

32

cancer of the blood-forming organs

leukemia

33

a condition in which bones become brittle and are easily broken

osteoporosis

34

a place where two or more bones meet

joint

35

how are joints classified?

by their structure and by the way they move

36

what are the types of joints

immovable joint - skull
slightly movable joint - spine & rib cage
freely movable joints - joints of appendages

37

what is the difference between an open and closed fracture

...

38

a type of connective tissue that holds together the bones in a joint

ligament

39

injury to joint when a joint is bet to far or in the wrong direction

sprain

40

a disease from the result of cartilage protecting joints is damaged

arthritis

41

a common disorder in athletes and musicians in which the Bursae sacs become swollen and painful

bursitis

42

what are the functions of the muscular system

muscles move the body from place to place; to move substances through the body; to provide structure and support

43

a tough connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

tendon

44

a muscle that bends a joint

flexor

45

a muscle that extends a joint

extensor

46

the only type of muscle you can control

voluntary muscle

47

the type of muscle you cannot control its movement

involuntary muscle

48

what are the differences between the types of muscle tissue?

skeletal muscle
-voluntary
-attached to bones; responsible for movement
-cells have many nuclei & striations
smooth muscle
-involuntary
-lines walls of blood vessels, digestive organs, uterus & bladder
-cells have one nucleus; interlaced in sheets
Cardiac Muscle
-involuntary
-one nucleus & striated

49

stripes

striations

50

What is the difference between fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers

fast-twitch : resist fatigue; produce little force
slow-twitch : produces great force; fatigue quickly

51

What are the functions of the integumentary system

to protect against injury, infection, and fluid loss; to help regulate body temperature

52

What gives skin its color?

melanin

53

What is the relationship between UV radiation and melanin?

melanin absorbs UV radiation, which can damage DNA and cause skin cancer. When the skin is exposed to UV rays, skin cells produce more melanin

54

the condition in which muscle mass is lost

atrophy

55

tendons that are repeatedly stressed can become inflamed resulting in ...

tendonitis

56

the outer layer of cells
(outer layer of skin)

epidermis

57

the layer of skin below the epidermis

dermis

58

the layer of cells beneath the dermis

subcutaneous

59

oily secretion of the sebaceous glands

sebum

60

a pigment the helps determine skin and hair color

melanin

61

a hard protein that makes up hair and nails

keratin

62

a hereditary skin disorder that causes red, scaly patches

psoriasis

63

type of skin cancer that develops in epidermal cells that do not produce malenin

carcinomas

64

cancer that occurs in pigment-producing epidermal cells

melanoma

65

nails grow from an area of the nail called the ...

nail matrix

66

hair begins in the part of the follicle called the ...

hair bulb