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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (37):
1

Which types of cells are haploid and which are diploid?

Every cell in the body is diploid except gametes, which are haploid.

2

Sex chromosomes
-which determine female?
-which determine male?

Female: XX
Male: XY

3

What are the advantages of sexual reproduction?

-offspring are more genetically diverse
-less likely to be wiped out by a change in environment
(not true of genetic clones that result from asexual reproduction)

4

What are the advantages of asexual reproduction?

-simple
-requires less:
Time
Resources
Energy

5

What are the different types of asexual reproduction?

-binary fission
-fragmentation
-budding
-parthenogenesis

6

What are characteristics if asexual reproduction?

-one parent
-genetically identical (offspring to parent)
-simple
-no gametes

7

Fertilization

gametes from parents fuse in this process
(Combination of generic material from both parents)

8

What is the difference between Haploid and Diploid?

Diploid has 2 sets of chromosomes
Haploid has one set of chromosomes

9

Homologous chromosomes

The pairs of chromosomes that the diploid cells have
-similar in size, shape, and kind of genes

10

How many chromosomes are in human cells?

46 diploid
23 haploid

11

What is crossing-over?

Homologous chromosomes pair and exchange information

12

When does crossing-over occur?

Prophase 1

13

What things add to genetic variety?

Crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization

14

When does DNA replication happen?

...

15

What are the results of meiosis?

During meiosis, four haploid cells are produced from a diploid cell

(4 haploid cells)

16

What is the difference between haploid and diploid life cycles?

...

17

What is a tatrad?

Homologous chromosomes and their copies

18

What are male gametes?

Sperm

19

What are female gametes?

Ovum

20

What is the difference between egg and sperm production?

...
Sperm-4 haploid cells change in form and develops a tail to form 4 sperm cells
-results in 4 sperm cells
Egg-2 haploid cells formed in meiosis 1, have unequal amounts of cytoplasm, larger cell becomes egg and others die off
-results in 1large ovum?

21

What is the difference between sporophyte and gametophyte?

Sporophyte: (multicellular diploid phase) produces spores
Gametophyte: (multicellular haploid phase) produces gametes

22

Which life cycle are humans?

Diploid

23

An organism's reproductive cells, such as sperm or egg cells are called

Gametes

24

Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content are called

Homologous chromosomes

25

When a cell contains two sets of chromosomes

Diploid

26

When a cell contains one set of chromosomes

Haploid

27

A type of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes is known as

Meiosis

28

What process occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis

Crossing-over

29

The union of the gametes during fertilization leads to the production of a

Zygote

30

The random distribution of homologous chromosomes in the formation of the gametes is

Independent assortment

31

What gamete is produced in quantities of our cells during meiosis?

Sperm

32

What gamete is produced as one large cell and three smaller cells during meiosis?

Ova

33

Diploid is an example of a

Life cycle

34

Contain genes that determine whether offspring is female or male

Sex chromosomes

35

XX

Female

36

XY

Male

37

Homologous chromosomes and their copies

Tetrads