Chapter 10 Unit 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Unit 4 Deck (63):
1

Italian city states declined politically Renaissance creativity stayed alive by spreading where

Northward they were more religious blended religious and secular

2

2 famous writers of northern Renaissance interested in secular life

William Shakespeare
Miguel de Cervantes

3

Influence of humanists enhanced after 1450 w invention of ----- by German

Johann Gutenberg

Advanced printing press made writing available for more ppl - PPl have bibles- more literacy - Renaissance ideas

4

Niccolo Machiavelli

Wrote the prince . Philosophical view of ideal political leader based on ancient roman rules ( in response to Italian city states constant attacks by French etc

5

Increased access to printed materials led to what

Events that resulted in weakening of the religious and political power of church

6

Protestant reformation

Rebellions against church led to permanent new divisions in wet term Christianity Catholics vs Protestants

7

Protestant reformations began when WHAT

How ppl worried about

Martin Luther made the 95 theses and criticized Catholic Church's sale of indulgences

Ppl worried church getting in between individual and God

Church growing greed

8

Indulgences

Paper that says your sins are forgiven if u pay money

9

Simony

The act of selling church offices and roles ( pay have higher rank)

10

Tithe

10% of yearly earnings go to church

11

Protestant teachings

The bible is the only source of truth ( ppl can read for themselves)

Written in vernacular languages

Salvation comes ONLY thru faith in Christ not indulgences

12

Rise in literacy led to

Interest in exploration which led to spread new ideas

13

Luther was later what? And his works inspired what

Excommunicated from church

He inspired movements that split religious unity

14

John Calvin
What's religion called and where spread

Meanwhile luthers followers believed in what

Established a variation of Protestant
believed in VENGEFUL stern God
Calvinism
British isles



A merciful God

15

Henry v111 made what

The Anglican Church
Actions based on pipes refusal to let him divorce his wife who didn't make a son

16

The catholic reformation

The movement to revive churches reputation & roles

Catholic Church responded forcefully

Tried to persuade Protestants to return back to church & banned indulgences

17

Assembly called council of Trent did what?

Led to what

Gathered high officials discuss religious doctrines and what Protestants complained about. Led to schools for priests

18

Jesuits

New religious members that went around Europe convincing people to return to church

Later became international missionaries converts in Asia and Americas

19

Protestant and catholic reformations led to

Break up of Catholic Church power

20

Edict of Nantes made thru what

Granted religious liberty and tolerance to Protestants

Religious tensions - wars - edict

21

Thirty year war

Ended w

Treaty of Westphalia
Cities can now choose their own religion

European religious war Ferdinand tried telling all to be catholic Protestants mad

22

English civil war

Catholic learning of Stuart kings / lots religious issues
Tensions led ppl leave America

23

The scientific revolution

Humanistic shaped science

Scientists based knowledge on direct observation ( math not theories during ancient times)
Reliance on human understanding weakened church

24

Empirical evidence

Info varifiable by observations

25

New science contrasted what bc why

Contrasted scholasticism of Middle Ages

Scholars has based inquiry on principles by church new emphasis on freedom of inquiry led to clashes b/w scientists and religious authorities

26

Nicholas Copernicus

Based his math on models by nasir al din

Revised Julian calendar ( Romans based it on Ptolemy ) theory adopted by church questioning Ptolemy was questioning church

Copernicus discovers earth revolves around sun

27

Nasir al din

Islamic scholar 13th century

28

Tycho Brahe and johannes kepler

Used Copernicus model to make theories showing other PLANETS REVOLVE ROUND SUN IN ORBITALS
Kepler published his work - fueled conflict religious officials vs scientists

Church said was heresy Protestants against new science

29

Galileo Galilei

And effect of this

Italian astronomer

Turned telescope first study the heavens discovered MILKY WAY

Ppl mad cuz showed earth wasn't special religious ppl question

He published for not just scientists church banned him house arrest

30

Isaac Newton

Most famous European scientists

Book described basic principles of motion math formulas for pull gravity

31

Intellectuals rethought concept of God thru explanation that a divinity set natural laws in motion system called

Deism

32

The enlightenment

New emphasis on human capabilities/accomplishments and importance of rational thought was displayed learn natural laws of universe

33

John Locke

Understood "laws of nature" on human liberties and equality

34

Thomas Hobbes

Said human beings by nature MUST be controlled by abs rulers

35

Adam smith

Analyzed natural law of supply and demand
Book "the wealth of nations"

36

Center of enlightenment

France
Salons were gatherings hosted by woman discuss ideas

37

Baron de Montesquieu

Liked British parliament suggest gov w 3 independent branches that SHARE political power

38

French philosopher Francois VOLTAIRE

Wrote criticisms of French monarchy and Catholic Church
Said both were INTOLERANT and limited freedom that ppl deserved by laws of nature

39

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Most radical philosopher

Suggested we return to nature( small communities no ownership of land)
Bc society corrupted human nature

40

Habsburg family

Powerful family were catholic Protestants didn't wanna see them gain power

Charles V wanted to unify all areas under his control ( unsuccessful)
Abdicated his throne

41

Who ruled Spain at height of power

Philip II son of Charles V

42

Ferdinand and Isabella did what of Spain

Sponsored Christopher Columbus and drove out Muslims out of southern Italy

43

Spanish and French Kings had lots of power became

Absolute monarchs

44

French kinds buggy bureaucracy helped get taxed and cultivated a belief in

Divine rights - gods blessing of kings authority- legitimacy of royals

45

what two places developed a new style of gov constitutionalism

Britain and Netherlands

Rulers shared power w parliament - ruler like others is subject to laws passed by parliament

House of orange

Protestant pair William and Mary ruled w parliament

46

Capitalism

Economic system based on private ownership of property and business that produce goods to be bough and sold in free market

47

Mercantilism

The responsibility of gov to promote the states economy to improve tax revenues and limit imports to prevent profits from going to outsiders

48

Joint stock companies

Organized commercial ventures on a large scale by allowing investors to buy and sell shares

49

New capitalist sys replaced

Old guild system Middle Ages

Guilds represented collective not individual

50

They produced good thru PUTTING OUT SYS

Entrepreneurs delivered raw materials to workers in their homes where they transformed the product to he picked up later

51

Europeans altered what

Altered inventions made elsewhere to suit their needs

52

New mapmaking technique called

The Mercator projection well suite for travel on Atlantic

Also made guns

53

Rapid pop. Growth bc two reasons

Increased average life span led to increased pop

1- healthier diets possible bc increase in food bc expanding trade networks

2- old diseases less deadly

54

Pop growth allowed for

Rapid economic expansion which was fuel for European settlements in new world

55

Renaissance / reformation and enlightenment opened Europeans minds to

Invention escape from social boundaries and intellectuals

56

Europe moved to center stage because of

Cultural changes
Political consolidation of centralized states
Technological advances and capitalism

57

Kings had enough money and power to

Control regional lands and sponsor trade expeditions

58

Tech advances and capitalism allowed Europe to

Increase their riches thru trade and territorial claims in w hemisphere

59

Crusades of 12th and 13th century

Started movement of European knights into Middle East ( trade b/w Europe and Middle East)

60

What led to urbanization

Regions growing trade and wealth of merchants

61

Wealthy merchants competed for

Power and became patrons

62

Genoa Venice Milan Florence were

City states that collected tax to support army

63

What led to concept of renaissance man

Artists interest in philosophy/ politics/science

Means a person often genius who knows a lot