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Flashcards in Hi Deck (43):
1

The code of Hammurabi identified three distinct classes in Mesopotamia

The free land owning class - royal family . Priests. Warriors. High gov officials . Merchants

A class of dependent farmers and craftsmen worked for the free land owning class

Slaves, who do domestic work and less desirable jobs outside the homes

2

Earliest civilization

Mesopotamia
Two rivers the Tigris and Euphrates

Crossroads for diverse groups

3

Many early settlers were members of which language family

Semitic language family

4

Who are the non-Semitic group called that came into a lower Mesopotamia about 5000 BCE

Sumerians

5

Sumerians created competing

City states

Centered in a large town that governed countryside around it

6

The Sumerian city states were not politically unified until 23000 when an invading Semitic group led by Who conquered the area

Sargon the great

7

Sargon the great founded the

Akkadian empire

8

As a result of the political conquest of the Akkadian empire

Cultural diffusion of Sumerian ways spread which influenced Mesopotamia to Egypt which became the Fertile Crescent

9

What city state replaced the Akkad in power

Ur rose

Gov bureaucracy grew
SYS of messengers and road stations sped up communication in area

10

In 1700's Hammurabi led who do conquer Mesopotamia

Babylonians

Over the centuries Hittites in 1500s BCE Assyrians and new Babylonians also came through

11

Common characteristics were both in

Egypt was ....for much time

River valleys

Isolated

12

Egypt was protected by cataracts

Areas where the water was too swift and Rocky to allowed boats to pass

13

What marker event occurred under the Babylonians

The first written law code called HAMMUrabis code

Shows beliefs and customs of the Mesopotamia people

14

Flooding in Egypt was

Regular and predictable

Could take preventative measures

Flooding in Mesopotamia was unpredictable
They were gloomy and resigned to fate

Egypt ppl more optimistic to control their destinies

15

Who created bronze

And did Egyptians use it

3000 BCE Mesopotamia metal workers invented bronze

Egyptians didn't use this until after 17th century when attacked and defeated by HYKSOS (turkey) Egypt didn't have any cuz their natural environment

16

Egypts political system reflected importance of

Reflected the importance of religious beliefs

Pharaoh

17

Ancient Egypts political history often divided into three eras

The old kingdom

The Middle Kingdom

The new kingdom

18

The major cities of INDUS River valley

What did they speak

Mohenjo- Daro

Harappa

Dravidian language

19

Who were the Indus River valley ppl conquered by

The Aryans invaders from the northwest

20

Egyptian religion was ....

Polytheistic

Strongly associated w agriculture

21

Amon re

Isis

Osiris

God of sun

Goddess of the Nile and fertility

Ruler of the afterlife

22

System failure

A breakdown of the political social and economic systems supported it

23

East Asia developed ?

Independently

24

Analects

A collection of Confucianism

25

Cosmopolitanism

The shares cultures and lifestyles that result when diff groups are in regular contact

26

Egypt - the new kingdom of Egypt began after the defeat of hyksos

It..

Egypt no longer isolated civilization got ties w Western Asia and got large army

27

Ppl who lived in Crete

Minoans

28

Minoan civilization replaced by who?

Mycenae

Were at war w city of Troy

Lots of invasions to Crete so the Mycenaeans abandoned and Aegean area turned into dark age

29

After fall of Mycenae civilization Greek cities emerged they were isolated until

The Phoenicians visited the Aegean reestablishing trade Middle East and Greece

30

Spartan women

Vs

Athens

Sparta women were free and equal w men were physically fit
Sparta run by women cuz men at war

Athens gender inequality defined confined to the home DIDNT HAVE POLITICAL RIGHTS NOR COULD THEY OWN PROPERTY OR BUISNESSES were citizens tho

31

Indus River valley construction suggests

Well organized gov plan and fortifications

32

Zhou overthrew who?
And claimed could rule bc of what

Shang

Mandate of Heaven

33

Polis were

Grew up how

City state

Cooperated together in inter city organization aka leagues


Independently

34

Solon

Most important oligarch of Athens set up laws that can be re written and revised

35

Rebellion put who In control and what did he do

Cleisthenes

Experimented w democracy

36

Who was the council of 500

Citizens chose and they were responsible for implementing policy

37

Mecca was founded by who

Umayyad clan of Quraysh Bedouin tribe

38

The most revered shrine
And the sacred rock is held

The Ka'ba and the black stone

39

Why was is impossible to unite the bedouins

Wars between rival clans

40

Animism

Spirits residing in ordinary objects and polytheism

Bedouin

41

Who did the Umayyad political leaders feel threatened by


And why

Muhammad

Saw new faith as danger to Mecca status as a pilgrimage destination for those that traveled to Ka'ba

42

Islam became universalizing religion bc

Adherents spread the new faith

It's principles appeared broadly to people of many different cultural backgrounds

43

Muhammad fateful flight to medina aka

HijrAh marks date of new religion