Chapter 11 - La dimension affective des attitudes Flashcards Preview

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1

Approche cognitive

Emotion-attitude congruence effect (mood-congruent bias): memory, false attribution and information processing

2

Approche cognitive -> 1) Mémoire (amorçage/priming):

• récupération sélective de l’information
- si forte émotion, saillante and pertinente pour le soi
- si réponses constructives (vs. reconstructives; Fiedler, 1991)

= we get back easier memories that are consistent with the affective state we are in when trying to remember certain things
-> biased and pro-attitudinal

3

Approche cognitive -> 2) Fausse attribution (inférential models) (ch. 19):

• l’émotion comme information (affect as information model):
- si faible capacité ou motivation pour traiter (Schwarz & Clore, 1983)
- trop simple et la valeur informative dépend de la situation (Martin, 2000)

= our moods will not necessarily be as a result of the object - they might be influenced by other factors than the object itself
- the informational value will depend on the affective state

4

Approche cognitive -> 3) Traitement de l’information (ch. 16):

= the mood will influence the way we treat information

- Capacité: moins si positive ou si négative = the moods can put us in more or less good conditions to treat the info - will either help or inhibit our capacity to treat the info

- Motivation
- Hédonique: à maintenir (éviter) des états (dé)plaisants = we have a tendency to search for pleasant states

- Cognitive tuning: la cognition rejoint (syntonise) les exigeances de la situation signalées par notre état affectif = if things are normal - it does not require our attention; if things are not normal - our attention is required - its like an alarm (prehistoric humans)
positif = environnement benigne
négatif = environnement menaçant

- Effort: positif = effortless négatif = effortful

- Nature:
positif -> on impose nos structures internes (traitement assimilatif, schematique, inclusive, top-down, interne)
négatif -> on analyse la situation (traitement accommodatif, bottom-up, externe (situation)

5

3. Domaines: soi, autrui, hors-groupes
Affect-congruent bias

Emotion

accessibilité des associations/informations en mémoire
(intensifiée si substantif)

Attitude et comportement

6

Attitude envers le SOI -> Trope & Neter (1994)

when in good mood - more interest in the negative feedback
-> the mood can be considered as a resource - we don't want to expose ourselves to negative ideas about us - therefore when we are in a good mood we have the affective resources to contradict this effect we are more open because the "self" is protected

7

Attitude envers le SOI -> Salovey & Birnbaum (1989)

- evaluation of pain grows when in a bad mood than when in a good mood
- when we have negative event - less chance of happening to us than to others
-more possibility of negative events for us when
we are in a bad mood

8

Attitude envers autrui -> Forgas et al (1994; étude 1)
Evaluation de la relation intime (+=+) selon la durée et l'état affectif

- globally: more positive evaluation of relationship when in a good mood
- depending on the length of the relationship, the evaluation of it will change

9

Attitude envers autrui -> Forgas (1994; étude 1)
Perception (+=négative) de couples concordantes (full match) ou pas (- vs. + élaboration) selon l'état affectif

- the more difference between the partners the more resources will be needed to evaluate the relationship and the partners
- the attitude is stronger as more resources are required to evaluate the situation

10

Attitude envers autrui -> Forgas & Bower (1987)
Mood-congruent bias in processing effort

- when there is a consistency between the mood and info reading, the time spent is a lot smaller
- when sad more time reading the positive
- in good mood more time while reading negative

11

Attitude envers autrui -> Forgas (JPSP-1999; étude 1)
Utilisation des styles de demande (évalués par des juges) selon la difficulté (easy = l’heure,
le prix; difficult = argent, remboursement, déplacer examen) et l'état affectif (vidéo)

- more politeness when in a bad mood and when the task is difficult

12

Attitude envers les hors-groupes -> Esses & Zanna (1995)
Attribution du stéréotype (+ = plus favorable) selon le groupe (exp. 1)

- positivity bias - when in good mood we give positive evaluation to in-group and we don't give to the out-group

- in bad moon evaluate negatively the out-group

13

Attitude envers les hors-groupes -> Bless et al (1996; exp. 4)

- when we have to judge a person we can either do it on an individual level (more resources required) or on a group level (less resources required - preconceptions)

-when individual information was negative he will be evaluated negatively regardless if he belongs to a positively evaluated company

14

Attitude envers les hors-groupes -> - Effet indirect selon l’implication personnelle (AIM)

- Deux chemins pour le biais de favoritisme intragroupe:
• Positif & faible implicationà -> traitement heuristique -> stéréotype
• Négatif & forte implication -> traitement systématique: motivé, dirigé (défensif) -> réparer l’état négatif et assurer une image de soi positive