Chapter 6 - L’influence des attitudes sur le traitement de l’information Flashcards Preview

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1

Effets sélectifs des attitudes

Attitudes (schéma, consistance et fonctionnalité)à
- facilitent l’encodage
- créent des expectatives
- guident les inférences
-> effets bénéfiques/adaptatifs vs dysfonctionnels

Niveaux de sélectivité (consciente ou pas):
- attention (automatique et sélective)
- jugement et traitement
- mémoire

2

L’influence des attitudes sur la perception -> Perception sélective des objets

Our perceptual system is very powerful, but the amount and complexity of information could overwhelm it.

Attitudes guide our perception so that we automatically become aware of what is adaptive

3

A) Influence de l’attitude sur l’attention
(effets automatiques)

Les objets par rapport auxquels on a des attitudes fortes attirent automatiquement l’attention.

Le plus l’évaluation est accessible, le plus elle attire
l’attention (de manière automatique) envers l’objet

4

Accessibilité des catégories ou schémas de
connaissance

Our understanding is associative: we interpret reality according to the categories or patterns of knowledge that are activated.
The categories for which we have attitudes are more accessible and therefore more easily used.

5

Influence de l’attitude sur l’attention
(effets motivés: attention et exposition sélectives)

= in general we give attention to info that is consistent to my attitudes than to info that is inconsistent to my attitudes

Theory of cognitive consistency (dissonance; Festinger, 1957):
- Inconsistent information creates an aversive state
- Selective exposure: search for compatible information / avoid
conflicting information

6

Exposition sélective

- Stronger effect for consistent information than for inconsistent information (Frey, 1986)

- Interaction with other factors:
- the credibility of the information/source (Frey, 1986) = when the info is credible the effect presents itself easier compared to when the source is not credible
- self-esteem (Wiersema et al, 2012) = the bias is bigger with people that have low self esteem


- Influence of other motivations: e.g. utility, familiarity = if we have to talk on a talk show and support our attitudes towards smt, we are going to read about arguments that go against pour attitudes in order to e prepared to the counter arguments of the other people there.

7

B.1.) Type de traitement de l’information
a) Processus heuristique (Pratkanis, 1989)

- Interpretation and explanation

- Halo Effects = effect that are due to the fact that an evaluation of an characteristic of an object will lead us to think that other objects associated will have the same characteristics

- Syllogistic reasoning = logical reasoning- is there a logic behind? our attitude will determine

- Responses to persuasive communications = when people think of a persuasive comm their attitudes will determine their positioning

- Interpersonal attraction = he degree with which we share attitudes with a person it is a big factor of how we evaluate this person

- False consensus = the fact that i will believe that the majority of people share my point of view - we overestimate the degree to which our point of view is supported by others

- Estimation of past behavior = in function to our attitudes we will well remember what we did in the past

- Prediction of future events

- Identification of facts

8

Construction sélective des faits (Pratkanis, 1988)

considérer vrai c’est qui est consistant avec notre attitude

9

B.1.) Type de traitement de l’information
b) Processus systématique/schématique (motivated reasoning)

- Integrated complex processing of information about the object
- We interrogate and assess information more fairly than information that is consistent with a
inconsistent (distortion, congruence or selective effect)
- Examples: AIDS

10

« Hostile media effect »

Vallone, Ross, and Lepper (1985)

= we usually think that the media presents other peoples point of view or preferences and not our own

11

Élaboration sélective


Pro-attitudinal bias greater if attitude stronger,
which is to say:
- More knowledge (Vallone et al, 1985)
- More information to be processed (Lord et al., 1979)
- More accessible (Houston & Fazio, 1989)
- More important (Pomerantz, Chaiken & Tordesillas,
1995)

12

B.2) Fonctionnalité des attitudes
a) Effets bénéfiques

- Tasks requiring effort (e.g. arithmetic, quick choice) increase physiological activation (e.g., cardiac contraction, pulsations)
- The accessibility of the attitude should make these tasks easier
-> lower physiological activation

13

C) L’effet des attitudes sur la mémoire
Deux hypothèses

1. Effet de bi-polarité (Judd & Kulik, 1980; Hymes, 1986)
= independently to attitudes, we have a tendency to store/remember either positive or negative memories


2. Biais pro-attitudinal (mémoire sélective; Levine & Murphy, 1943)
= in which measure our attitudes help us recover/store a memory that are consistent with our attitudes