Chapter 3 - La mesure des attitudes Flashcards Preview

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1

Mesures directes

= the measures used are presented to the individual in a open and explicit way

We assume that people know their attitude, and that they are able and motivated to express it

Reliability and validity (vs. errors)

Different sources of influence:
- Attitude
- Measurement context (e.g., order of questions, comparison)
- Motivational aspects (e.g. demand characteristics, responsiveness, self-presentation).
- temporarily hide the purpose or instruct the subjects
- social desirability measures
- bogus pipeline

2

Types of direct measures: Questions ouvertes / fermees

• Participant utilise ses propres mots
- fiables et valides
- coûteuses

3

Types of direct measures: Un seul item

- simple et utile
- assume une forte accessibilité de l’attitude
- problème de fiabilité

4

Types of direct measures: Différentiel sémantique (Osgood et al., 1957)

- échelles souvent en 5 ou 7 points
- inversion des réponses pour les items négatifs (ou positifs)
- forte corrélation entre les items (non-ambiguës)
- attitude= moyenne/somme des réponses
- assume la bipolarité
- avantage: mêmes items pour plusieurs objets

5

Types of direct measures: Likert (1932)

- importance de l’équidistance entre les catégories
- échelles souvent en 5, mais aussi en 7 points
- inversion des réponses pour les items négatifs
- forte corrélation entre les items (non-ambiguës)
- attitude= moyenne/somme des réponses

6

Types of direct measures: Thurstone (1928)

• liste d’environ 100 items pour et contre un objet
• 100 sujets (juges) les classifient proportionnellement en 11
catégories, de la plus opposée à la plus favorable
• chaque item a ainsi une valeur de 1 à 11
• importance de l’équidistance entre les catégories
• on sélectionne les plus claires pour chaque catégorie
• sujet indique s’il est d’accord ou pas avec chaque item ->
• attitude = médiane de la valeur des items choisis

7

Mesures indirectes

Expression of attitude beyond consciousness and/or
control of the individual

8

Types of indirect measures: Indicateurs non-réactifs (observation)

comportementaux
- mouvements du corps (e.g., tête, mains, contacte oculaire)
- position corporelle, distance corporelle
- comportements (e.g., jeter un papier, renvoyer une lettre par la poste)

physiologiques
- réponse galvanique de la peau
- dilatation des pupilles
- activité musculaire du visage (EMG)
- activité cérébrale (EEG, fMRI)

-> people might be or NOT be aware of some behaviors they present that will demask their opinion/attitude
-> letters sent to the wrong address with clear names - either local or migrant names - they tested if people sent back the letter to the right address

9

Types of indirect measures: Indicateurs cachés 1

Attitudes associées (mesures indirectes):

-> to know the attitude without asking directly, we ask the opinion about a different object that we know that the attitudes between the two are connected

Techniques projectives (Proshansky, 1943):

Interprétation de stimuli (information ambiguë, insuffisante ou déstructurée)

- Objets: shoping list (Haire, 1950)
- Personnes: (Hendrick & Seyfried, 1974; Vargas et al (2004)

-> we ask the participants to interpret some stimuli but with missing information - to get the interpretation the person has to report the missing elements to herself -> in this way we get to establish their attitude

10

Types of indirect measures: Indicateurs cachés 2

Error-choice methods:

- Misinformation (Hammond, 1948).
Example: With the current government, the country's GDP:
- has increased by 10%.
- has remained stable
- has decreased by 10%.

- Errors in logical reasoning (e.g. Thistlethwaite, 1950):
Example:
- if unemployment produces precariousness
- and if foreigners take the work of the Swiss
-> foreigners increase precariousness

11

Types of indirect measures: Autres mesures

Name-letter effect (Nuttin, 1985)
-> we have a tendency to evaluate positively the letters in the alphabet that are part of our names - especially the initials

Abstraite-concrète (Maass et al., 1989): (Description abstraite = dénote des traits plus stables )
-> the more the info is abstract the more stable it is

Attribution d’émotions primaires vs. secondaires (Leyens et al., 2000)
-> primary emotions (fear, happiness) secondary (melancholy) - when asked to attribute emotions to immigrants most people attribute primary emotions - that are shared with animals

12

Types of indirect measures: Mesures implicites

- Attitude is assumed to be in part a network of links that associate the object of attitude (e.g., a social group) with a series of descriptive characteristics (e.g., stereotype)
- This link is unconscious for the individual, and beyond his control
- Attitude is inferred from responses on objective tasks (performance) to illustrate these links (e.g., response time)
- Distinction between attitude (implicit vs explicit) and measurement technique (implicit vs explicit)

13

Types of indirect measures: Mesures implicites - illustration

-> Gaertner & McLaughlin (1983): Temps de réaction lors de la reconnaissance de mots

negative words - short reaction time for blacks, but slightly longer than for whites

positive words - very long reaction time for blacks and very short for whites

=> when white people are asked to rate words that were positive related to blacks, they took more time to associate the word with positivity