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La structure cognitive des attitudes - 3 types

1. Structure intra-attitudinale
2. Structure inter-attitudinale
3. Force des attitudes


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: - Polarity

Bipolar: 1 continuum with 2 poles (knowledge about the 2 poles, but agreement with 1). (-> 2 poles - positive or negative if my evaluation could go to either extremes we can talk about an attitude that can be seen a bipolar)

- Attitude towards abortion
- Theory of social judgment (Sherif et al 1965)

Unipolar: 2 or more non-exclusive dimensions (with low correlation, different referents/values). (-> unipolar - even if we have a positive or negative atitude it is not necessary excluding the other . ex: i can see smth as very positive but i can also find negative aspects about it - clasical music)

- Political attitude (Kerlinger, 1984; Conover & Feldman, 1981):
- Liberal=freedom, equity, tolerance, rights, etc.
- Conservative= stability, security, morality, individualism, etc.
- Peace vs. war (Bizumic et al., 2013 to)


Exemple d’attitude bipolaire - (Bohner & Wänke, 2003)

while we think about abortion, we can go to either of these extremes - for each pole there are factors/information that characterize it


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: Polarité
-> Variabilité selon:

- the individual
- the object (controversial to bipolar)
- the scale:
- Bipolar:
- Negative (-5)(-4)(-4)(-3)(-2)(-2)(-1)(0)(+1)(+2)(+3)(+4)(+5) positive
- Positive: not at all (-5) ----- (+5) completely
- Unipolar:
- Positive/favourable attitude: not at all (0)(1)(2)(2)(3)(4)(5)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(9)(10) quite
- Negative/unfavorable attitude: not at all (0)(1)(2)(2)(3)(4)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(8)(9)(10) quite
-> indifference vs. ambivalence


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: - Dimensions

Complexity (articulation): 1 to several dimensions
-> we reflect on a object based on several dimensions that are either more or less correlated with it - the more dimensions the more complex the attitude)

Nature of dimensions (ABC model: Affective Behavioral-Cognitive)
->all attitudes have dimensions of diffrent nature: cognitive, affective and behaviorla


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: Composants agrégés
croyances -> attitudes

Information Integration Model (Anderson, 1991) (do you like this chair? - we will have a lot of elements of info that we will automatically associate with it)

- Value of information (beliefs)
- Evaluative meaning (S) (every judgment has a significant evaluative value for us)
- Relevance (weight) or importance (W) (we will ponder this evaluation to the importance it has for us and it's pertinence)

- Integration (functions: addition, average, etc.) (we will try to use a mathematical way to predict if we will buy the chair or not)

Additive: R = W0S0 + W1S1 + W2S2 + W3S3 + W4S4 … + WnSn


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: Composants agrégés
croyances -> attitudes 2

Modèle de l’utilité subjective attendue (expectancy-value principle):
- probabilité d’occurrence d’un attribut (b)
- évaluation de cet attribut (e)

eg. Modèle de l’action raisonnée (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980)

AO = b1e1 + b2e2 + b3e3 + b4e4 + b5e5 … + bnen


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: - Consistance

Consistency (consonance):
- Correlated history: Tripartite model of attitudes
- All predictive of attitude

- The coherence effect (Simon et al., 2015): increase the consistency between a conclusion/decision and its attributes
o No separate elements but global structure (holistic process, Gestalt)
o Cohesive forces bringing balance (go together = fit together)

-> see chapters on the influence of attitudes on information processing and on the influence of behaviour on attitudes


1. Structure intra-attitudinale: - Inconsistance

Inconsistency :
- History not correlated (attitude determined mainly by one)
- Ambivalence (Chapter 8)

Imbalance generates forces to restore balance (homeostatic property,'reconstructions') (we can not stay in a state of inconsistency)

Consequences for changing attitudes: - unstable attitudes


2. Structure inter-attitudinale

= evaluative consistency - how i evaluate 2 objects - the way i evaluate one object will have an impact on the other object that is associated with the first


2. Structure inter-attitudinale: Théorie de l’équilibre (balance theory)
(Heider, 1946)

- if i have a + attitude towards O and a + attitude towards X then it is possible that O will have a + attitude towards X

- the enemy of my friend will be my enemy

- the enemy of my enemy is my friend

- the friends of my enemy are my enemy


2. Structure inter-attitudinale: Idéologies - definition

= clusters of interdependent attitudes, beliefs and values organized around a social theme


3. Force des attitudes - definition

= "something" beyond the positive/negative nature of a
attitude that determines its power to influence


3. Force des attitudes: Indicators (10 of them)

= indicators of the force of the attitude - precede the attitude

Extremity / conviction
Internal consistency (no ambivalence)
Direct experience
Involvement (involvement; vested interest)
Trust and confidence


3. Force des attitudes: Conséquences (4 of them)

= the stronger the attitudes, the more they have these characteristics

Selective processing
Predictive force


Attitudes générales -> Attitudes spécifiques
Prislin, Wood et Pool (1998)

Attitude générale -> peine de mort et égalité de droits:
- Mesure cognitive et affective
- Mesure de la consistance évaluation-cognitive et évaluation-affective (différence absolue entre indices)

Attitude spécifique -> reforme pénale et la discrimination sexuelle dans l’embauche:
- Faible ou forte pertinence (implication pour le sujet)