Measure of Retention - Recall
Recall: retrieval of stored information using a minimal amount of cues
- Free Recall: retrieval of information in any order
- Serial Recall: recall in order of presentation
- Cued Recall: where cues are used to aid recall
Measure of Retention - Recognition
Recognition: testing recognition could involve giving subjects a list of 100 words in which 20 are mixed with the other 80. Must choose correct words amongst the 100 options
Measure of Retention - Relearning
Relearning: testing would involve counting how many practice trials are needed for subjects to remember the full list on a later occasion.
The savings score is a measure of retention and is calculated:
(trials original learning) - (trials for relearning) / (trials for original learning) x 100/1
What is encoding specificity?
States that the associations formed at the time of encoding new memories will be the most effective retrieval cues
- when the conditions under which we are trying to retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which it was learnt we are more likely to retrieve it. learners INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
- learners EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT which the memory was formed
What is a mnemonic device?
Any strategy or technique used to enhance memory
e.g. acronym, acrostic, peg-word method, narrative chaining
What is an acronym?
Acronym: Verbal Mnemonic (initial letters represent word)
What is an acrostic?
Acrostic: Verbal Mnemonic (initial letters of term in list to be initial letter of word that make a sentence)
What is the peg-word method?
Peg-word method: Visualization Mnemonic
e.g. one=bun, two=shoe, three=knee
What is narrative chaining?
Narrative Chaining: Visualization & Verbalization (involves linking seemingly unrelated words into a story)
Why does eyewitness testimony fail?
One major cause of the failure of eyewitness testimony lies in the reconstructive nature of such memories. Usually the eyewitness sees the perpetrator for only a few seconds, often in very poor viewing conditions such as in shadow or dim light, partially obscured or from a distance.
What are state-dependent cues?
Refer to the internal environment, which are factors within the person. It is the physiological and/or psychological state that the person was in at the time of learning.
What are context-dependent cues?
Refer to the learner's external environment (the context) in which the memory was formed.
e.g. sounds, smells and temperature
What are misleading questions?
Refers to the way questions are asked (especially in court). It can be in both descriptive and non-descriptive language.
e.g. 'how fast was the car going when it contacted the other car?' or 'how fast was the car going when it smashed into the other car?'
What are false memories?
Refers to the idea that therapists, police or questioners can easily imply or implant memories into a subject's mind by using certain language (descriptive) or through repetition