Chapter 11: Personality and Emotions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Personality and Emotions Deck (57):
1

______ is a psychological construct defined as the relatively stable and characteristic set of traits and behaviors of an individual.

personality

2

The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to assume that another person's personality or beliefs _____ his/her behavior.

cause

3

Two influential theories of personality development are Freud's psychoanalytic theory and ____ psychosocial theory.

Erickson's

4

Developmental psychologists suggest that a rudimentary form of personality called _____ is found in newborns.

termperament

5

Temperamental differences among newborns suggest that personality is in part, influenced by _____ as well as shaped by experience.

nature

6

Developmental psychologists also study _____ development.

emotional

7

An ____ is a conscious experience or feeling that has a stimulus component, a cognitive component, a bodily or physiological component, and a behavioral component.

emotion

8

Emotional development includes becoming able to express different emotions, regulating emotional responses, and ______ the emotions of the self and others.

interperting

9

_______ refers to a child's characteristic mood and activity level.

temperament

10

Even young infants are ______ different from one another.

temperamentally

11

The New York Longitudinal Study followed 140 children from birth to adolescence and rated them into ____ categories at 2 to 3 months old.

4 categories
Easy Infants
Difficult Infants
Slow to Warm Up Infants
Average Infants

12

40% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study were adaptable to new situation and positive in their moods, ____.

easy infants

13

10% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study were intense in their reactions, slightly negative, and not very adaptable to new situations, _____.

difficult infants

14

15% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study were slow to adapt to new situation, _____.

slow to warm up

15

35% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study did not fit into any other catagories, _____.

average

16

Early temperament appears to be highly _____ determined, environment can also influence.

biologically

17

Researchers have used the term ________to describe an environment in which an infant's temperament matches the opportunities, expectations, and demands the infant encounters.

"goodness of fit"

18

Freud argued that childhood experience determine adult personality, unconcious mental processes influence ______, and conflict causes most human behavior.

everyday behavior

19

In each stage of the psychosexual development, pleasure that satifies the id comes from a different _____ or part of the body where the pleasure originates.

erogenous zone

20

In each stage of the psychosexual development there is a ______ because the ego must find socially acceptable ways to satisfy the id.

psychosexual crisis

21

During the phallic stage boys have ____ complexes which are desires for opposite sex parents as well as feelings of fear and hostility for same sex parent. Successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with the _____.

oedipal complex
same sex parent

22

During the phallic stage girls have ____ complexes which are desires for opposite sex parents as well as feelings of fear and hostility for same sex parent. Successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with the _____.

electra complex
same sex parent

23

_____ can result when urges are either frustrated or overindulged in any one erogenous zone. ____ results in one's personality becoming permanently locked in the conflict surrounding that erogenous zone.

Fixation
Fixation

24

Erickson believed that the way each psychosocial crisis is resolved affects the person's ability to successfully _____ the next crisis.

resolve

25

Bandura used the term _____ for children's perception of their ability to succedd at a task. Children with low _____ may be very competent but do not believe that are competent.

self-efficacy
self-efficacy

26

Self-efficacy comes form experiencing success and perceiving one's success as comparable to ____.

peers

27

Bandura suggested that a child that is excited or nervous before a task can cause him to perform _____ or worse. An optimal level of excitement might be the most advantagous.

better

28

______ is the perception of one's worth.

self esteem

29

Children's self esteem judgements are influenced by self concept and _____.

self efficacy

30

Cross cultural research on self esteem has shown _____ differences on levels of self esteem in children from different cultures.

signficant

31

Chinese and ______ children have been shown to have lower self esteem than ______ children. The difference in how these cultures value collectivism versus individualist may explain the difference.

Japanese
American

32

The major task of adolescence is forming an ______.

adult identity

33

Cross cultural research on the adolescent stage of development has shown variation in the length of adolescence as well as the ______ of adolescents.

experiences

34

Adolescentce is viewed as a ____ , a time period given to adolescents to explore different identities and prepare for adulthoood. Adolescents are not still children, but also not yet adults during this moratorium.

moratorium period

35

According to Marcia and adolescent becomes an adult when he or she has made a commitment to an ______.

adult identity after much exploring

36

Choosing the wrong identity will lead to an identity crisis later on in ____.

adulthood

37

Marcia's four identity status groups

identity moratorium
identity diffusion
identity foreclosure
identity achievement

38

The ______ is an identity crisis with no commitment.

identity moratorium

39

____ is when there is no identity crisis and no comittment.

identity diffusion

40

______ has no identity crisis and a commitment.

identity foreclosure

41

______ has an identity crisis and commitment.

idenity achievement

42

Male adolescents tend to have _____ of self esteem compared to females. This may be due to the fact that males have better body images than females.

higher

43

Developmental psychologists suggest that adults' lifestyle and satisfaction are influenced by their adult ____.

personality style

44

______ suggested that adults who remained active and connected with other people were more satisfied.

activity theory

45

______ suggested that satisfied older adults followed a natural tendency to become less engaged in society.

disengagement theory

46

Research shows that there are four adult personality styles that determine _____.

preferred lifestyle

47

The ____ type is an adult who has chosen to be very active and satisfied, has chosen to engage in a few activities and is satisfied, or has disengaged voluntarily and is satisfied.

integrated

48

The _____ types is an older adult who remains active in the hope of maintaining abilities and is satisfied, or disengages after experiencing losses and is satisfied.

armored-defended

49

The ______ type is an older adult who is very emotionally needy and satisfied if he or she has others to lean on, or disengaged, rocking chair adults who have low satisfaction.

passive-dependent

50

The ______ type is an adult who has lost or never had normal psychological functioning.

unintegrated/disorganized type

51

The 4 types of adult personality types

integrated
armored-defended
passive-dependent
unintegrated/disorganized

52

Robert Plutchik proposed that emotions evolved because they help species to _____. He felt that emotions are inherited behavioral patterns and are modified by experience.

survive

53

Emotions have four components: external stimuli that are interpreted by the person, feelings, physiological arousal, and _____.

behavioral responses

54

Various theories have attempted to explain the experience of emotions. William James and Carl Lange proposed that people experience physiological changes and interpret these changes as _____. In other words, emotions follow behavior and not vice versa.

emotions

55

The ____ theory argues that emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system.

Cannon-Bard

56

Stanley Schachter's view of emotion is a _____ approach. It is referred to as the Schachter-Singer Theory.

cognitive

57

The Schachter-Singer theory proposes that emotion occurs when physiological arousal causes us to search for reasons for this ______.

arousal