Flashcards in Chapter 11: Personality and Emotions Deck (57):
______ is a psychological construct defined as the relatively stable and characteristic set of traits and behaviors of an individual.
The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to assume that another person's personality or beliefs _____ his/her behavior.
Two influential theories of personality development are Freud's psychoanalytic theory and ____ psychosocial theory.
Developmental psychologists suggest that a rudimentary form of personality called _____ is found in newborns.
Temperamental differences among newborns suggest that personality is in part, influenced by _____ as well as shaped by experience.
Developmental psychologists also study _____ development.
An ____ is a conscious experience or feeling that has a stimulus component, a cognitive component, a bodily or physiological component, and a behavioral component.
Emotional development includes becoming able to express different emotions, regulating emotional responses, and ______ the emotions of the self and others.
_______ refers to a child's characteristic mood and activity level.
Even young infants are ______ different from one another.
The New York Longitudinal Study followed 140 children from birth to adolescence and rated them into ____ categories at 2 to 3 months old.
Slow to Warm Up Infants
40% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study were adaptable to new situation and positive in their moods, ____.
10% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study were intense in their reactions, slightly negative, and not very adaptable to new situations, _____.
15% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study were slow to adapt to new situation, _____.
slow to warm up
35% of infants in the New York Longitudinal study did not fit into any other catagories, _____.
Early temperament appears to be highly _____ determined, environment can also influence.
Researchers have used the term ________to describe an environment in which an infant's temperament matches the opportunities, expectations, and demands the infant encounters.
"goodness of fit"
Freud argued that childhood experience determine adult personality, unconcious mental processes influence ______, and conflict causes most human behavior.
In each stage of the psychosexual development, pleasure that satifies the id comes from a different _____ or part of the body where the pleasure originates.
In each stage of the psychosexual development there is a ______ because the ego must find socially acceptable ways to satisfy the id.
During the phallic stage boys have ____ complexes which are desires for opposite sex parents as well as feelings of fear and hostility for same sex parent. Successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with the _____.
same sex parent
During the phallic stage girls have ____ complexes which are desires for opposite sex parents as well as feelings of fear and hostility for same sex parent. Successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with the _____.
same sex parent
_____ can result when urges are either frustrated or overindulged in any one erogenous zone. ____ results in one's personality becoming permanently locked in the conflict surrounding that erogenous zone.
Erickson believed that the way each psychosocial crisis is resolved affects the person's ability to successfully _____ the next crisis.
Bandura used the term _____ for children's perception of their ability to succedd at a task. Children with low _____ may be very competent but do not believe that are competent.
Self-efficacy comes form experiencing success and perceiving one's success as comparable to ____.
Bandura suggested that a child that is excited or nervous before a task can cause him to perform _____ or worse. An optimal level of excitement might be the most advantagous.
______ is the perception of one's worth.
Children's self esteem judgements are influenced by self concept and _____.
Cross cultural research on self esteem has shown _____ differences on levels of self esteem in children from different cultures.
Chinese and ______ children have been shown to have lower self esteem than ______ children. The difference in how these cultures value collectivism versus individualist may explain the difference.
The major task of adolescence is forming an ______.
Cross cultural research on the adolescent stage of development has shown variation in the length of adolescence as well as the ______ of adolescents.
Adolescentce is viewed as a ____ , a time period given to adolescents to explore different identities and prepare for adulthoood. Adolescents are not still children, but also not yet adults during this moratorium.
According to Marcia and adolescent becomes an adult when he or she has made a commitment to an ______.
adult identity after much exploring
Choosing the wrong identity will lead to an identity crisis later on in ____.
Marcia's four identity status groups
The ______ is an identity crisis with no commitment.
____ is when there is no identity crisis and no comittment.
______ has no identity crisis and a commitment.
______ has an identity crisis and commitment.
Male adolescents tend to have _____ of self esteem compared to females. This may be due to the fact that males have better body images than females.
Developmental psychologists suggest that adults' lifestyle and satisfaction are influenced by their adult ____.
______ suggested that adults who remained active and connected with other people were more satisfied.
______ suggested that satisfied older adults followed a natural tendency to become less engaged in society.
Research shows that there are four adult personality styles that determine _____.
The ____ type is an adult who has chosen to be very active and satisfied, has chosen to engage in a few activities and is satisfied, or has disengaged voluntarily and is satisfied.
The _____ types is an older adult who remains active in the hope of maintaining abilities and is satisfied, or disengages after experiencing losses and is satisfied.
The ______ type is an older adult who is very emotionally needy and satisfied if he or she has others to lean on, or disengaged, rocking chair adults who have low satisfaction.
The ______ type is an adult who has lost or never had normal psychological functioning.
The 4 types of adult personality types
Robert Plutchik proposed that emotions evolved because they help species to _____. He felt that emotions are inherited behavioral patterns and are modified by experience.
Emotions have four components: external stimuli that are interpreted by the person, feelings, physiological arousal, and _____.
Various theories have attempted to explain the experience of emotions. William James and Carl Lange proposed that people experience physiological changes and interpret these changes as _____. In other words, emotions follow behavior and not vice versa.
The ____ theory argues that emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system.
Stanley Schachter's view of emotion is a _____ approach. It is referred to as the Schachter-Singer Theory.