Chapter 12: Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Learning Deck (33):
1

____ is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience, practice, or both.

learning

2

______ is the most rudimentary form of learning.

habituation

3

Both humans and animals may be biologically prepared to learn some associations more readily than others. The associations that are more readily learned may be ones that increase chances for ____.

survival

4

_____ conditioning occurs when a new neutral stimulus is associated with a conditioned stimulus (CS) and eventually comes to produce the conditioned response. If after Albert was classically conditioned, a dog was always paired with the rat, eventually Albert would display the fear response to the dog.

higher order

5

In operant conditioning responses are learned becuase of their ____.

consequences

6

Unlike classical conditioning, the responses learned in operant/instrumental conditioning are ____

voluntary

7

_____ occurs in operant conditioning by removing the reinforcers.

extinction

8

_____ reinforcers are necessary to meet biological needs and include food, water, air, etc.

primary

9

_____ reinforcers have acquired value and are not necessary for survival.

secondary
money, grades, a pat on the back

10

How easily an operant response is extinguised is dependent, in part, on how often that response was ________ or its schedule of reinforcement.

reinforced

11

Behaviors that are reinforced continously (100%) are ____ to extinguish than behaviors that are not reinforced 100% of the time.

easier

12

_____ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses.

fixed ratio
(i.e. every 3rd time the dog sits he gets a biscuit)

13

_____ schedules produce the fastest rate of extinction because the subject realizes quickly that reinforcement has stopped.

fixed ratio

14

_____ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses. Reinforcement may occur after 10 responses and on another occasion after 50. The rate of reinforcement depends upon the rate of responding. The faster, the more reinforcers received.

variable ratio
i.e. slot machines

15

_____ shedules produce steady, high rates of responding and is extremely resistant to extinction.

variable ratio

16

_____ schedule is when reinforcement is given after the first response aafter a given amount of time has elapsed. This may mean an enforcer every 5 minutes.

fixed interval
ie. being paid one a month

17

_____ schedules produce a low rate of responding at the beginning of the interval and a high rate at the end.

fixed interval

18

_____ schedule is when reinforcement is giver after the 1st response after a varying amount of time has elapsed.

variable interval
i.e. pop quizzes

19

_____ schedule produces a steady, slow rate of responding.

variable interval

20

______ schedules produce higher response rates than the interval schedules.

ratio

21

____ schedules are usually harder to extinguish than fixed schedules because that are less predictable.

variabl

22

American behaviorist BF skinner devised a device called the ______.

skinner box

23

_____ is very important for punishment to be effective - the sooner the punishment is deliverd after the undersired behavior occures, the better the learning.

timing

24

Punishment must also be ____ enough to eleimnate the undersirable response.

sever

25

_____ often provides a model of aggressive behavior, and the person punished may learn that aggression is a method for solving problems.

punishment

26

Many behaviorist today suggest that punishment be avoided as a method of conditioning. Instead, they recommend the use of ____ to weaken an inappropriate response and reinformcent to increase approbpriate behaviors.

extinction

27

_____ learning is guided by 4 processes: attention, retention, repoduction of action, and motivation.

observational

28

Attention must be paid to the salient features of another's actions. _____ or status of a model can influence whether another's actions are notice.

Prestige

29

An observed behavior must be remembered in order to be carried out, which is called ____.

retention

30

We must be able to carry out the behavior that we observed, which is called _____

reproduction of action.

31

There must be come reason for carrying out the behavior. Observing someone being rewarded for a behavior increases the liklihood that the behavior wil be perfomed which is the ____.

motivation

32

In Bandura's doll experiment that found that children learned the aggressive behavior even when the adult was not _____

reinforced for this behavior

33

Later research indicated that children who watched an agressive model being reinforced were much more aggressive in a similar situation than children who saw the model _____ for the aggressive actions.

punished