Chapter 7: Language Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Language Development Deck (66):
1

_____ and thinking are 2 abilities that make us uniquely human.

language

2

A spoken language requires the use of signs and _____ with grammar.

symbols

3

_____ determines how the various signs and symbols are arranged and is a set of rules for combining the symbols, or words, into sentences.

grammar

4

Language also allows us to use the signs and symbols within our grammar to create ______.

novel constructions

5

______ are the smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech. The English language consists of 53 ______. By changing the beginning ____, the word hat becomes cat.

phonemes

6

____ is the smallest unit of language that has meaning. A word can be one ____ but ______ are also roots, stems and prefixes, and suffixes. When speaking of more than one bat, we add the _____ "s"

Morepheme
morepheme
morephemes

7

____ is the study of meaning in language.

semantics

8

_____ or grammar is the set of rules that determine how words are combined to make phrases and sentences.

syntax

9

_____ is the study of how sounds are put together to make words.

phonetics

10

______ includes the social aspects of language, including politeness, conversational interactions, and conversational rules.

pragmatics

11

____ is the study of the psychological mechanisms related to the acquisition and use of language.

psycholinguistics

12

_____ distinguished between a sentence's surface structure (the words actually spoken) and its deep structure (underlying meaning).

Noam Chomsky

13

When we hear a spoken sentence, we do not retain the surface structure, but instead transform it into its ____. Chomsky referred to this theory as ______ grammar theory.

deep structure
tranformational

14

____ is guided by both bottom-up and to-down perception.

speech perception

15

_____ processing in perception depends on the information from the sentences at the most basic level, with sensory info flowing from this low level upward to the higher, more cognitive levels.

Bottom-up
i.e. the word cat

16

_____ processing emphasizes the kind of information stored at the highest level of perception and includes concepts, knowledge, and prior knowledge.

Top down processing
i.e. hear a missing phoneme --fill in the blanks

17

The first vocalizations that infants make include _______ and ______.

cooing and crying

18

At about 4 months of age, infants begin to ____. Their _____ are comprised of a repetition of syllables.

babble
babblings

19

By six months of age an infants is more likely to ______ when an adult is talking to the infants.

babble

20

Babbling appears to be an innate ability because even ____ infants usually babble.

deaf

21

Infants usually begin to understand several individual words that caregivers are saying by ____ to ___ months of age.

5-8

22

A child's first words are ordinarily spoken between ___ and ___ months of age. This is referred to as the one word stage because usually they can only use one word at a time.

10-12

23

Children often underextend and overextend the _____ of their first words.

meanings

24

_______ occurs when a child only uses a word in a specific context (only says duck when in the bathtub with a toy duck but never refers to this toy by name outside the bathtub)

Underextension

25

________ or overgenarilization occurs when a child uses a word to mean more than an adult speaker would. ilel a child who calls all four legged furry animals (cats, dogs, rabbits, etc) doggie is overextending.

Semantic overextension

26

Some researchers have referred to children's one word utterances as _____, that is, this one word could be interpreted to mean an entire phrase.

holophrases
i.e. a child points to an object and says cookie. This one word could possibly mean, depending on context, "I want a cookie," "there is a cookie", or "is that a cookie?"

27

Children from ___ to ___ months of age are in the 2 word stage of language development because they are now making short, two word sentences. i.e. (more milk, where ball)

18-20

28

During the two word stage their vocabulary is expanding rapidly and they may learn several new words _____.

each day

29

Carey has suggested that this vocabulary growth spurt (during the two word stage) is explained by a process she called _____.

fast mapping

30

Carey argues that children assign a _____ to a word very rapidly after only a brief encounter during this phase of language development.

meaning

31

______ quickly follows the two word stage and consists of sentences that do not contain any morphemes, conjunctions, prepositions, or any other function words.

telegraphic speech

32

Telegraphic speech only contains the ___ words necessary to convey meaning, similar to a telegram (Doggie kiss Jeff)

content

33

Children's first sentences follow the subject verb object sequence, and children often rely on this word order to make their ______. Eventually, children ad verb endings, adjectives, auxiliary verbs, and morphemes to their utterances.

meaning clear

34

Initially children tend to use the ____ verb tenses, even the exceptions (i.e. went, ran).

correct

35

By age ___ or ____ children often use incorrect verb forms (goed, runned). These errors are called ______ seem to indicate that children are acquiring general rules about their language and for a period of time they overgeneralize these rules to the exceptions.

4 or 5

36

By the age of ____, children have acquired most of the syntax of their native language.

5

37

When speaking to infants and older language learning children, older children and adults typically use _______, which is speech that contains short sentences that are often repeated.

motherese

38

______ tends to consist of concrete nouns and active verbs only. These sentences are enunciated clearly, often in a high pitched voice.

motherese

39

Many researchers believe that _____ helps children learn language. However, recent research has shown that mothers typically use two techniques called expansions and ______ that have a positive effect on children's language development.

motherese
recasts

40

_____ is when a mother repeats a child's verbalization after making it more complex.

An expansion
i.e. if a child says mommy up, the mother might reply, Oh you want me to pick you up?

41

A ____ is repeating a child's utterance after correcting grammatical mistakes.

recast
i.e. if a child says, He goed, the mother might reply, Yes, he went home.

42

School age children continue to improve their _____ of language and both school age children and adolescents continue to increase their ______.

pronunciation
vocabulary

43

While there is a tremendous vocabulary spurt during the ______ period, school-age children and adolescents continue to increase their vocabulary by many words a day.

preschool

44

Children, show an improved understanding of the ______ rules of language as they age.

pragmatic

45

The understanding of word meanings expands in adulthood and older adults continue to have _____ in vocabulary. Older adults may have more difficulty retrieving words, that may be due to a memory processing deficit, not a _____ deficit.

gains
language

46

Language skills are remarkably maintained through ______.

late adulthood

47

An ongoing nature vs nurture debate has been whether language is basically ______, biological process or a ______ phenomenon.

innate
learned

48

many researchers hold the view of the _______ that children are somehow biologically programmed to learn language.

nativist theory

49

According to Chomsky, a _________ gives children an innate ability to process speech and to understand both the fundamental relationships among words and the regularities of speech.

language acquisition device

50

Researchers have also proposed a _____ for language learning during childhood. If exposed to language during this ______, language learning will take place. After this time has passed, language learning will be more difficult.

sensitive period
sensitive period

51

The _____ theory of language development argues that humans are born with a mind that is a tabula rasa and that all aspects of language are learned.

empiricist

52

BF Skinner and other _____ theorists proposed that language learning takes place similar to other forms of learning. That is, parents selectively ______ and shape babbling sounds into words. When parents speak to their children, the children receive attention and affection. As a result children then try to make these reinforcing word sounds ____ and try to imitate their parents because it is reinforcing to do so.

learning
reinforce
themselves

53

A sensitive period for language development would support the ____ view.

nativist

54

There is some evidence for a _____ from studies of feral children, abused children or children raised by animals, who were not exposed to language until after their discovery. These children can acquire some use of language but do not reach the level of language development found in the normal adult.

sensitive period

55

The sensitive period for language is said to end at or around ____.

puberty

56

Additional support for the nativist position comes from studies of infants' sound ______. Young infants have the capacity to _____ all of the phonemes used in all of the world's languages, and they lose this ability over time as they are only exposed of the phonemes of their native language.

discrimination
discriminate

57

Infants can also make all of the sounds used in all of the _____ languages during the babbling phase. This ability also declines with age. The consistent pattern of errors in children's speech, like overregularization, ____ the nativitist view.

world's
supports

58

The ____ theory is also helpful in explaining the language development.

learning

59

Children's speech clearly undergoes a _____ process as their pronunciation of words improves. The learning mechanisms of imitation and _____ likely explain these changes.

reinforcement

60

There is also ample evidence that how parents talk to their children affects their _____, as well as socioecon0mic status and gender differences in language use.

language development

61

Both ____ and _____ interact in language development.

nature and nutrue

62

______ is having some degree of fluency in more than one language.

bilingualism

63

___ to ____ % of children in the US are bilingual and many other countries of the world have significantly higher bilingualism rates.

10-15%

64

Some bilingual children, called ______ bilinguals, are equally fluent in both languages, but many others are not.

balanced

65

Early research on the cognitive development and academic achievement of bilingual children in the US showed they had ______ compared to their monolingual peers.

deficits

66

Bilinguals, particularly, balanced bilinguals, have cognitive advantages over _____ peers. They have better linguistic awareness and greater cognitive flexibility.

monolingual