Flashcards in Chapter 9: Social Developmenet Throughout the Life Span Deck (175):
_____ development refers to the development of behaviors and thoughts the child engages in when he or she interacts with others.
The need for social affiliation or a desire to be with other people is ____.
Evolutionary psychologists describe social affiliation as an example of a species behavior that evolved because of its _____.
Humans seek out the company of others especially when ____.
In a classic series of studies, Stanley Schacter manipulated the fear level of ____ by leading them to believe they would receive electric shocks in a lab experiment. He then measured whether they preferred to wait for the experiment to begin either alone or _____, which the majority preferred.
______ is reasoning about social situations and social relationships.
A child is not born with the capacity to understand self and _____.
As children gain more social experience and develop cognitively, they are better able to understand that they, and others, have ____, feelings, thoughts, and relate to each other in social role relationships.
Social cognition influences social interactions and _____.
Developmental psychologists have identified one of the key concepts that underlies social cognition. This concept is called _______, which is the understanding that people have mental states and that the content of these mental states guides their behavior.
theory of mind
Actions are guided by _______, emotions, and goals.
Baron-Chen and his colleagues developed the ______ to assess children's theory of mind. In this task, a child witnesses a confederate place a marble in a basket and leave the room. While the confederate is out of the room, the experimenter moves the marble from the basket into a box. When the confederate returns to the room, the child is asked where he or she thinks the confederate will look for the marble. Most ______ year olds will correctly say that the confederate will look in the basket. 80% of ______ children go the task wrong, leading them to hypothesize that these children have mind blindness.
false belief task
4 year olds
A theory of mind begins with joint attention seen in children beginning around ____ months of age.
_____ is when a child and caregiver simultaneously direct their attention to the same object.
i.e. an infant this age will point to an object then turn to the caregiver to see that he or she is looking at the object.
More sophisticated understandings of a theory of mind appear in the _____ year.
Children's pretend play also signifies an understanding that there is a difference between _____ and pretend.
_____ is creating false beliefs in a sense.
Beginning between _____ years of age, children refer to their mental states in their speech. " I want to..." indicates the child understands his action is driven by desire.
2 and 3
Children are also capable of deception and may try to ____ someone by planting a false belief. A child might try to play a joke on Mommy by telling her that he or she at all the cookies, when in fact they didn't.
Social cognitive ability affects things like ____ and popularity. A child who is not skilled in social cognition may often misinterpret the motives of other people.
Someone unskilled in social cognition might push a child who ______ bumped into them. Aggressive children tend to ______ the motives for other people's behavior.
Before interacting with other people, infants have to develop a sense of self, that is, the understanding that they are _____ from other people.
To determine if a child has _____, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn developed the mirror test of self recognition.
Children ages ____ of age were seated in front of a mirror after the experimenter surreptitiously placed rouge on their cheek. Infants at least ____ of age rubbed their own cheek when they saw the reflection other than rub the mirror as younger infants did.
9 to 24 months
The concept of ____ contributes to a child's ability for self control.
Toddlers are capable of compliance, obeying others wishes, and _____.
delay of gratification.
______ is the ability to exert self control and wait for an anticipated reward or goal or put off a desired acitivity for a later time.
delay of gratification
Children who are younger than ____ who are asked to describe themselves and other people will use the physical attributes of a person before using psychological characteristics like personality attributes.
7 or 8 years old
By the age of ___ or so they describe themselves and others as being funny or smart.
At age ___ or ____ children begin to make social comparisons of their own characteristcis, traits, and abilities with their peers. They may judge themselves to be smarter than others or not as smart.
11 or 12
________ plays a key role in Erikson's model of psychosocial development.
Adolescent's descriptions of themselves and others get more ____ as they are able to consider more dimensions of psychological and personality characteristics.
Role taking skills also develop as the child has more social experiences and develops ______.
______ skills are critical to the child's ability to interact with others.
According to Piaget, children are egocentric between the ages of ___ to ____.
2 to 6 or 7
Between the ages of ___ and ___, children understand that people have different viewpoints, but are not capable of judging how other people view them.
Between the ages of ___ and ____ children understand that there is a view of the self and a view of the ___. They view themselves a certain way and they view other people a certain way. They further understand that the other person's view of them can be different from their view of themselves and vice versa.
8 and 10
Between ___ and ___ children can take the perspective of a 3rd party. They can understand how a 3rd person views tehir relationship with a 2nd person.
____ acquire the ability to take a societal perspective. They can understand that a group has certain views and beliefs.
_____ are our set of expectations about appropriate activities for females and males.
Gender is independent of biological sex and ______.
There is a ____ gender role, ______ gender role, and androgyny.
______ are restrictive views about which gender role men and women should adopt.
In our culture, the stereotypic view is that females are feminine and males are _____
Elements of the stereotypical feminine gender role include being caring, nurturing, and ______.
Elements of the stereotypical masculine role are being aggressive, dominant, and ______.
The ______ gender role combines the best elements of the other two gender roles.
Developmental psychologists studying gender development have discovered that children have to acquire _____, which is the understanding that biological sex remains the same throughout life.
Developmental psychologists studying gender development have discovered that children have to acquire ______, which is the understanding that one's biological sex is not changed by changes in appearance.
Gender stability and gender constancy are necessary concepts for the child to develop a ____, which is an internalized view of the self as feminine, masculine, or androgynous.
______ starts early in life. This is a process of socializing children about what roles are appropriate for males and females in the society.
Differences in toys, clothing, and how people treat them communicates these _____.
Research has shown that even preschoolers believe that males and females have different _____. They also believe it is inappropriate to act like a member of the other gender.
Young school age children are very restrictive about gender roles but become more ______ and tolerant of violations of gender stereotypes.
Adolescents regress to being more inflexible about gender roles and _______ to gender stereotypes.
Adults tend to adopt stereotypical roles when they have children but the androgyny shift hypothesis argues that in mid-life people start to become more ____.
Social learning theory proposes that children learn gender roles because they are rewarded for appropriate behavior and _____ for inappropriate gender role behaviors. Children also watch and imitate the behaviors of others.
In Cognitive Theory Kohlberg argued that children learn about gender the same way that they acquire other cognitive concepts. 1st preschool children acquire gender identity. Then childen classify others, activities and objects as male or female. Once these gender concepts are acquired children engage in _______.
gender type behavior
In psychoanalytic theory Freud proposed that children establish their gender role identitiy as a result of identification with their ______ parent during the phallic stage.
Kohlberg developed a model of _____ development based on an individuals responses to difficult moral questions called moral _____.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development attempts to explain how children develop a sense of ___ or ____.
right or wrong
Kohlberg was influenced by ____ theory and therefore felt that moral development was determined by cognitive development.
Kohlberg's theory describes how individuals pass through a series of three levels of moral development, each of which can be broken into 2 sub levels, resulting in a total of ___ stages.
Stage 1 of Kohlberg's Theorgy of Moral Development
Stage 2 of Kohlberg's Theorgy of Moral Development
Level 1: Preconventional Morality of Kohlberg's theory of Moral development
punishment orientation and reward orientation
Level 2: Conventional Morality of Kohlberg's theory of Moral development
Good-girl/Good-boy orientation and
In Kohlberg's Theory in stage ____ a person complies with rules during this stage in order to avoid punishment.
1. punishment orientation
In Kohlberg's Theory in stage ____ good behavior is that which pleases others and gets their approval.
3. good girl/god boy orientation
In Kohlberg's Theory in stage ____ an action is determined by one's own needs.
2. reward orientation
In Kohlberg's Theory in stage ____ behavior is directed by self-chosen ethical principles. High value is placed on justice, dignity, and equality.
6 Morality of individual principles of orientation
In Kohlberg's Theory in stage ____ emphasis is on upholding the law, order, and authority and doing one's duty by following societal rules.
4 authority orientation
In Kohlberg's Theory in stage ____ flexible understanding that people obey rules because they are necessary for the social order but that rules can change if there are good reasons and better alternatives.
5 social contract orientation
Level 3: Postcoventional Morality
Social contract orientation and Morality of individual principles orientation
Criticisms of Kohlberg's theroy of moral development include that it may be better at describing the development of ____ morality.
Carol Gilligan conducted similar studies of reasoning about moral dilemmas, but in comparing males to females foudn that females tended to apply a morality of care versus a _____ when reasoning about moral issues
morality of justice
A _____ is basing decisions about morality by considering the impact of actions on other people or on social relationships.
morality of care
Kohlberg's model suggested that a morality of justice was the most developmentally advanced type of _____. His model has also been criticized by those who argue that development may not be as orderly and uniform as his theory suggests.
Kohlberg's theory describes moral reasoning but does not predict ____.
The development of more advanced moral reasoning in children is assisted by parents use of ______.
Parents use induction when they explain to a child how his or her behavior can _____ impact others.
Punishing a child for bad behavior or withdrawing affection are both less effective means of teaching ____.
_____ is the close emotional relationship between an infant and his or her caretakers.
Ethologist Konrad Lorenz studied attachment in animals. He found that ducklings attach to their mother duck after birth. They follow their mother duck, a behavior Lorenz called _______.
Lorenz found that there was a critical period for _____ to develop. In fact, ducklings will imprinting on any moving object if they are exposed to that object during a critical period of days after hatching. If the exposure does not occur during this time period the ducklings never imprint.
Ethologists suggest that infant attachment to a caregiver is analogous to imprinting in ducklings and that attachment is _____ for an infant since the infant is dependent on caregivers for survival.
Complete social isolation prevents the development of attachment and socialization in _____.
Monkeys raised in complete social isolation either display fear or _______ when suddenly placed in the companionship of peers.
Harry Harlow conducted a seminal study with monkeys to study the ______ attachment. To test the hypothesis that infants attach to a caregiver for survival, Harlow conducted an experiment to see which of 2 surrogate mothers the infant monkeys attached to. A wire mesh mother fed the baby, but they attached to the cloth mother even though they didn't feed the baby. Harlow concluded that the warmth and ____ given by the cloth mother was the necessary condition for the attachment relationship.
formation of attachment
_____ infants come prepared with attachment behaviors, that is, behaviors that elicit caregiving.
Initially infants attempt to attract the attention (smiling, crying) of no one in particular. Between ___ and ____ weeks of age, an infant begins to smile in the presence of a caregiver. Prior to this time, an infant's smile is merely a reflexive response. Eventually infants develop the ability to ______ familiar from unfamiliar people.
_____ is when an infant may cry or otherwise become distressed when preferred caregivers leave the room.
Separation anxiety may begin as early as ____ of age, but it usually peaks around 18 months and then gradually declines.
Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues found they could distinguish three categories of attachments based on the quality of the _______.
infant caregiver interactions.
A method of measuring the quality of the attachment relationship in what is known as the _______. They had mothers and infants come into a lab room and then observed the infants behaviors when the mother left the room and upon their return. Some criticize the artificial environment, but remains the most _____ used technique in studies of attachment.
Ainsworth Strange Situation
Based on their reactions in the Strange Situation, infants are classified as either having a secure or ______ attachment.
Insecure attachment is divided into three categories: anxiou-ambivalent, avoidant, and _______.
Children use parent as secure base from which they explore the new environment. They become upset when their mother leaves the room but are glad to see her and ___ to her when she returns.
Anxious-Ambivalent children tend not to use the parent as a secure base (and may often cling or refuse to leave their mother). They become very upset when she leaves and my often appear ______ or become more upset when she returns.
Avoidant children seek little contact with their mother and are not _____ when she leaves. Usually avoid interaction when the parent returns.
Disorganized -Disoriented children alternatively approach and avoid contact with their mother. They appear ____ about whether to seek or avoid her. Often appears in abused children.
Parents of _____ attached infants are often found to be more sensitive and responsive to their child's needs.
Some studies have found a relationship between attachment patterns and children's _______. One study foudn that securely attached infants were less frustrated and happier at 2 than were the insecurely attached peers.
Some researchers have suggested that in addition to ____, temperament, genetic charcteristics, and goodness of fit may be important for both the type of attachment bond formed and a child's later developmental outcome.
Psychologists studying adult relationships have shown a relationship between the quality of infant attachments and later adult _____.
Securely attached infants develop the capacity to have _____ adult relationships.
Adults who had insecure infant attachments tend to have ____ adult relationships
Infants up to the age of _____ generally spend their time on solo missions. They play by themselves.
Infants up to the age of two tend participate in _____ or functional play such as moving a truck back and forth on teh floor.
Even if a child is playing by themselves, but in a room with other children , they are engaged in _____.
Parallel play is when two children are playing side by side but have little to ______.
______ play is when two or more children are playing in proximity to each other and may share toys but do not share a common goal.
_____ play is receiving enjoyment by watching other people play.
Children engaging in _____ play share a common goal and is often rule -governed. Between ages 2 and 6 children seek the company of their peer regardless of sex.
During the elementary school years, children desire _____ friendships.
During the elementary school years, boys and girls often ______ each other. These children tend to play in groups but start to pair off into sets of best friends.
Peer acceptance and _____ in childhood has significant influences on children's development.
_____ children are at risk for dropping out of school, having delinquent or criminal behavior, and needing mental health services.
Children who are less _____ and more cooperative tend to be the most well liked.
Predictors of popularity in children include good social cognitive skills, ______, being good natured, have positive self perceptions, and having a good sense of humor.
above average intelligence
Rejected children can be either rejected-aggressive or ______.
____ children are actively disliked by their peers.
_____ children are ignored or invisible to their peers.
Experiences in the family, parenting style, attachment quality, and exposure to _____ or _____ models influence children's social competence.
aggressive or non-aggressive
In _____ same sex and opposite sex friendships occur as well as dating relationships.
_____ are very important in adolescence as the need to be accepted by peers gets stronger as adolescent spend more time with friends and family.
The need to be accepted leads to _____ and capitulating to peer pressure.
Friendship groups vary in ____.
A _____ is a small collection of close friends who spend a substantial amount of time together.
A ______ is a collection of several cliques and typically is mixed-sex.
Membership in a clique tends to be very ______ an what is acceptable behavior, dress, etc, is strictly defined.
Opposite sex friendships occur with greater frequency than in childhood and may help _____ adolescents prepare for dating relationships.
Adult friendships remain equally important to the quality of one's life as compared to _______ and adolescents.
Adults who are single report a great need for friendship and _____.
Many single adults report feeling _____.
______ refers to those factors that contribute to a relationship being formed.
_____ theory views human interactions in economic terms. According to this theory, when two people meet, they each calculate the costs and benefits of developing a relationship. If the benefits outweigh the costs, then the two people will be attracted to each other.
Studies of friendship have found ____ factors that are important in determining who will become friends.
proximity or propinquity
People are generally attracted to those who are _____ to themselves in many ways - age, sex, race, economic status
It is easier to develop a friendship with people who are close at hand. ______ also increases the likelihood of repeated contracts and increased exposure can lead to increased attraction - the mere exposure effect. At MIT, Festinger found that friends of women who lived in married student housing were most likely to live in the same building.
Physical ___ is a major factor in attraction for people of all ages. We tend to like _____ people.
Research in social psychology indicates that physical appearance is the most important determinant of first impressions. It also contributes to effectiveness in persuading others to change their _____.
The same factors connected with friendship (similarity attractiveness, and proximity) are also related to ______ relationships.
Dating and married couples tend to be similar in age, race, social clas, religion, education, intelligence, attitudes, and interests, which is an example of ______.
We tend to fall in love with people who live ____.
We tend to fall in love with people whose attractiveness ______ our own according to the matching hypothesis.
Researchers believe that love is a qualitatively different state than merely _____ someone.
Unlike liking, _____ includes passion, closeness, fascination, exclusiveness, sexual desire, and intense caring.
Some researchers have distinguished two types of love
passionate or romantic love
companionate or afectionate love
This type of love includes intense pysiological arousal, psychological interest, sexual desire, and the type of love we mean when say we are in love with someone.
passionate or romantic love
This type of love occurs when we have a deep, caring affection for a person.
companionate or affectionate love
Sternberg proposed a ____ theory of love that consists of three components.
The encompassing feelings of closeness and connectedness in a relationship is called.
The physical and sexual attraction in a relationship
The inital cognition that one loves someone and the longer-term feelings of commitment to maintain the love.
According to Sterberg's theory, _____ love only happens when all three kinds of love are respresented in a relationship. Which he called _____.
_____ love is based on passion and commitment only and is often short live.
Research has shown that successful romantic relationships that last for many years are based on the _______ of love and admiration, friendship between the partners, a commitment to the relationship, displays of affection, self disclousre and offering of emotional support.
_____ aggression is defined as intentionally inflicting physical or psychological harm on others.
_____ aggression is using aggressive behavior to achieve a goal, but is not intended to harm
_____ aggression is a form of hostile aggression that is aimed at damaging other people's social relationships.
1/3 of studies show that ____ are more aggressive than females, and the differences are larger with children than adults and with physical rather than verbal aggression.
The consistency in the differences between males and females has led some theorists to suggest aggression is due to a ______ difference between males and females. This is a nature view of aggression
Cross cultural research on gender differences in aggression has show that males are more aggressive than females in each of the cultures studies, but the differences between the two groups vary ______ in some cultures and larger in others.
While there may be a biological component, _____ clearly influence aggressive behavior.
The _______ hypothesis states that frustration produces aggression and that this aggression may be directed at the frustrater or displaced onto another target, scapegoating. However, frustration does not always cause aggresion.
According to social learning theory, people learn to behave aggressively by observing aggressive models and by having their aggressive responses ____
Parents who use physical punishment to discipline their children tend to raise _____ children.
Exposure to role models in the mass media, especially tv, can influence ______.
Some research demonstrates that adults and children as young as nursery-scool age show higher levels of aggression after they view _____.
_______ or prosocial behavior, is the selfless concern for the welfare of others that leads to helping behvior.
_____ behavior is observed in children as young as 13 months of age.
Research has found that individuals who are high in _____, an emotional experience that involves a subjective grasp of another person's feelings, are more likely to help others in need.
______ is the term used for whatever qualities or characteristics an infant has who is at risk but overcomes those risks.