Practice Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Human Growth > Practice Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Practice Test 1 Deck (88):
1

Which theoretical perspective emphasizes nature in the "nature versus nurture" controversy?

Psychodynamic theory

2

Which theorist would be most likely to expect cultural differences in development?

Vygotsky

3

To determine whether boys and girls play differently, a researcher video taped children at play during school recess. This is an examples of _____.

naturalistic observation

4

The average child begins to walk between _______.

11 and 12 months

5

According to Piaget, adaptation is made up of the two processes called _______.

accomodation and assimilation

6

The fact that parents will provide less direction to a child who begins to show competence on a task, supports the theory of _____.

Vygotsky

7

According to the information-processing approach, children's memories improve with age mainly because ______.

they get better at organizing information

8

Jane digs a hole in the sandbox while Jim, who is sitting next to her, fills his bucket with sand. They share the shovels in the sandbox and talk about school. They are engaged in ______.

associative play

9

Which of the following research methods is most often used to study rare or unique situations or behavior?

case study

10

Which of the following theories describes stages of development?

discontinuity

11

Sara pushes joy out of the way so she can get a toy she wants to play with first which is an example of _____.

instrumental aggression

12

According to statistics, which group commits most of the child abuse in our country?

parents

13

Which theoretical perspective assumes there is a bidirectional relationship between the person and the environment?

Sociocultural

14

A problem with longitudinal research is ____.

subject drop out

15

Students who have developed a mastery orientation would attribute a good grade on a test to their ability, and a bad grade on a test to ______.

lack of effort

16

According to the recent research, which of the following has shown a correlation with age, but is not found only in older people?

wisdom

17

Compared to peer groups in middle childhood, adolescent peer groups ________.

are more structured and exclusive

18

Mollie sees Jake crying and gives him a toy to him stop crying which indicates the presence of ____

empathy

19

Among the parenting styles that have been studied by Baumrind, which is associated with the most negative impact on development?

univolved

20

Physical growth is rapid during infancy, slows during early and middle childhood, and then is ____ during adolescence.

rapid

21

Research on the growth hormone (GH) has shown that children given early treatments of GH develop _____.

normally

22

Researchers have studied the impact of late versus early maturation on adolescents; adjustment Which of the pairs below have been shown to have the best adjustment outcomes?
A. early maturing boys and early maturing girls
B. early maturing boys and late maturing girls
C. Late maturing boys and early maturing girls
D. Late maturing boys and late maturing girls
E. Adolescent adjustment is in fact NOT related to the timing of maturation.

B. early maturing boys and late maturing girls

23

One theory of biological aging suggests aging is inevitable and is caused by ____.

wear and tear from normal use.

24

An effective treatment for the side effects of menopause is _____.

estrogen replacement therapy

25

Compared to women, the male climacteric is _____.

a slower decline

26

Osteoporosis is a ____ disease.

bone

27

Janet's mother is terminally ill and the doctors have said her death is imminent. A hospital social worker has suggested to Janet that she contact the hospice program. The social worker most likely told Janet that hospice would do everything possible to give her mother a ___.

pain free death

28

Gibson's visual cliff experiment showed that ______.

six month olds did not crawl across the visual cliff

29

Newborns scan the ____ of a stimulus, and older infants scan the center or inside of a stimulus in _______ experiments.

edges, visual scanning experiments.

30

When you see a German sheperd 100 yard away from you in a park, you don't think it is a miniature doge because of ______.

size constancy

31

Which of the following is the LEAST developed in newborns?
A. Taste
B. Touch
C. Vision
D. Audition
E. Smell

C. Vision

32

Speed of habituation in infancy and later IQ scores have been shown to be _______.

positively correlated

33

The type of hearing loss associated with aging is loss of sensitivity for _____.

high frequency sounds

34

One reason older adults experience declining eye sight is decreased _____.

flexibility of the lens.

35

An example of the learning approach to language development is when a child learns the language through ____ the speech of those around them.

imitating

36

"Mommy and I goed to the store" is an example of _____ in language development.

overregularization - using goed instead of went or tooths intstead of teeth

37

Billy sees a beach ball and says "ball," He sees a basketball and says "ball." He sees a soccer ball and says "ball." Finally he sees a globe on a desk ans says "ball." Calling the globe a ball is referred to as _____.

overextension

38

Noam Chomsky argued that the ability to learn language is _____.

innate (exists from birth)

39

The first stage of language development is ____.

cooing

40

An indication that we are born prepared to acquire a language is the fact that infants can discriminate among all of teh speech sounds used in all of the ______ even better than adults.

world's languages

41

Studies of intelligence in adulthood have shown while there is some decline in information processing, there is some ______ in fluid and crystallized intelligence.

stability

42

Sibling rivalry tends to be worse during ____ childhood.

middle childhood

43

Compared with children who have siblings, only children are less _____ by their peers.

well-accepted

44

Although the rate of divorce is high, the rate of remarriage is also high. This leads to a large number of reconstituted families referred to as ______ families.

blended

45

A sexual offender is more likely to target ___.

a child who is emotionally needy and socially isolated

46

One way to help children adjust to divorce is to minimize the conflict between ______.

parents after the divorce

47

Researchers examining cultural influences on self-esteem have found that _______ and _____ children score lower in self-esteem than American children.

chinese and japenese

48

Children display learned helplessness if their parents set ____ standards of achievement for them, but also communicate the belief that the child is _____ very capable.

high
not

49

This statement is an example of the parenting technique called _____, "If you don't put your toys away, someone may trip on them, fall and get hurt."

induction

50

A child who laughs when Daddy dresses up as a woman for Halloween, but knows Daddy is still a boy, shows _____.

gender constancy

51

The most important personality achievement of adolescence according to Erickson is _____.

identity

52

In Freuds' theory, resolution of the Oedipal conflict is achieved through _____.

identifying with father

53

The psychosocial crisis of young adulthood in Erickson's model is ______.

intimacy versus isolation

54

Males have a higher risk of sex-linked genetic diseases like hemophilia than females do because their ____ chromosome cannot mask the effect of a trait for the disease on their X chromosome.

Y

55

What genetic disorder can be controlled with diet?

PKU

56

The best approach to helping profoundly deaf children is to ______.

teach them sign language and how to lip read

57

Johnny is disobedient, loud, and aggressive in the classroom and at home. He recently threatened to hit his teacher. Johnny would most likely be diagnosed with _______.

conduct disorder

58

A key indicator that a child has a learning disability is _____.

a discrepancy between ability and performance

59

When asked what career he wanted to pursue, Julio said: "I am going to be a doctor just like my mother and father. I have always wanted to be a doctor. I can remember pretending to be a doctor when I was just a little kid." Julio's answer illustrates _____.

identity foreclosure

60

Recent survey research has shown the period of time between launching the last child and retirement to be a time of ________.

renewal and growth for parents

61

The social smile first appears in infants between ______ of age.

6 and 10 weeks of age

62

Research suggests it is important to plan for one's retirement because engaging in meaningful activities during retirement is associated with ____.

happiness.

63

The ego, in contrast to the id, mediates between

wish fulfilling desires and the outer reality.

64

Freud believed that the primary driving force in an individual's life was _____

libido

65

Which approach to psychology stresses the importance of the person's environment on development?

Behavioristic

66

Suppose you believe that people are capable of developing personally through life and that, given the opportunity they will achieve their full potential. Which approach to personality does this describe?

humanistic

67

Ivan P Pavlov is famous for his research on _____.

classical conditioning

68

The role of imitation in social learning was first systematically observed by _____.

Bandura and Walters

69

______ studies indicate a relationship between two variables.

correlational

70

Which of the following effects does adrenaline have on the human body?

accelerated heartbeat

71

According to Piaget, a person who cannot consistently use abstract logic has NOT reached the stage of ______.

formal operations

72

Suppose you teach preschool and you break Joe's candy bar into three pieces and Mike's candy bar into two pieces. Mike complains that he received less than Joe. What does Mike lack?

conservation

73

The short-term memory can hold how many items at one time?

7 items, plus or minus 2

74

Which of the following problems would require divergent thinking?
A. ADDING A COLUMN OF NUMBERS
B. DECIDING WHETER TO TURN LEFT OR RIGHT AT AN INTERSECTION WHILE DRIVING
C. CHOOSING THE BEST MOVE IN A CARD GAME
D. REPAIRING A BROKEN TYPEWRITER
E. BOTH A AND D

C. CHOOSING THE BEST MOVE IN A CARD GAME

75

The Language Acquisition Device was proposed by ______.

Chomsky

76

In linguistic terminology, the term "boy" is

morpheme

77

A normal average IQ score is ____.

100

78

Which of the following does NOT describe a true relationship between environmental factors and IQ?
A. Level of parent education predicts IQ
B. Socioeconomic status predicts IQ
C. Score on the HOME scale predicts IQ
D. Parents' occupational status predicts IQ
E. Intensity of separation anxiety predicts IQ

E. Intensity of separation anxiety predicts IQ

79

Shortly after birth a duck will follow the first objects that walks by it, this illustrates

imprinting

80

Which of the following is NOT a factor that influences the degree to which two people like each other?
A. familiarity
B. Physical attractiveness
C. similarity
D. conformity
E. repression

repression

81

Which of the following increases as a person's need for social affiliation increases?
A. cognitive dissonance
B. fear
C. anxiety
D. depression
E. repression

fear

82

According to social learning theory, one of the primary means of socializing our children is _____.

observational learning

83

According to Freud, a developmental halt due to frustration and anxiety is referred to as _____.

fixation

84

A stimulus that elicits a response before the experimental manipulation is _____.

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

85

In our society, money is an example of a ____.

secondary (conditioned) reinforcer

86

The reinforcement schedule that produces the highest rates of performance is a _____ schedule.

variable ratio

87

Mary is a bright student but she is constantly disrupting the class by trying to draw the teacher into a power struggle for control. The school psychologist might advise the teacher to do all of the following EXCEPT
A. not show Mary the anxiety she is causing
B. ignore Mary's disruptive behavior
C. verbally embarrass Mary until she is more cooperative
D. suggest she talk to Mary's parents
E. reinforce Mary when she engages in more

C. verbally embarrass Mary until she is more cooperative

88

The major affective disorders are characterized by _____.

extreme and inappropriate emotional responses