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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Theories of Development Deck (174):
1

The _____ versus nurture controversy is an old argument in philosophy and psychology.

nature

2

This debate is whether our development is influenced more by the experiences we have, _____, or by the genetic endowment we inherit from our biological parents, _____.

nurture vs. nature

3

According to the nurture side, at birth the human mind is like a blank slate, or ______, that experience writes upon.

tabula rasa

4

Most theorists agree that it is implausible for nature or nurture to be the _____ on our growth and development.

sole influence

5

The goal of research in development today is to understand the relative influence of each factor, nature and nurture, in the development of _______ or abilities like intelligence or personality.

particular traits

6

_______ or stage theories argue that development progresses through a series of stages.

discontinuity

7

Each stage is seen as involving a ____.

specific task

8

In discontinuity, or stage theories, the developing person is seen as not changing quantitatively, but ______.

qualitatively.

9

_____ theories, suggest development is best described as a steady growth process.

continuity

10

Developmental change is described as occurring in small steps or _____. Skills and behavior improve but do not change qualitatively.

increments

11

An older child can remember more information compared to a younger child, but does not go about remembering the information in a _____ different way.

qualitatively

12

Freud and _____ are theorists that believe development is complete once adolescense is reached.

Piaget

13

Life span theories of development argue that growth and change continue to occur through out the ______.

the entire lifespan

14

____ is a theorist who took a life span perspective.

Erik Erikson

15

______ argued that all children progress through the same stages of cognitive development in the same order and at the same approximate age.

Piaget

16

Piaget believed in a ______ of cognitive development.

universality

17

______ has created an ecological systems theory of development that describes various contexts in which development takes place and how the reciprocal relationships between the child and the people in these sociocultural contexts affect the child's development.

Bronfenbrennar

18

Psychologists who argue for context-specific devellopment point out there are differences in development between people from _____ cultures and those who are from _______ cultures.

collectivist
individualistic

19

A ____ culture places greater value on the common good than individual achievement.

collectivist

20

An ____ culture values individual achievement and the pursuit of individual goals.

individualistic

21

Until his death in 1980, ____ was a predominant figure in the filed of cognitive psychology.

Jean Piaget

22

No other single individual has had a greater influence on educational practices than _____.

Piaget

23

Piaget's ______ theory is based on the notion that cognitive abilities are developed as individuals mature physiologically and have opportunities to interact with their environment.

cognitive development

24

Piaget stated that individuals interacting with their environment was referred to as equilibration of _______ and _______ cycles or processes.

accommodation and assimilation

25

When someone encounters a new or novel stimulus they are brought into a state of _____.

disequilibrium (thrown off balance)

26

_____ is the adjusting of prior knowledge gained through former experiences and interactions.

accomodation

27

_____ is the fitting together the new information with what has been previously known or understood.

assimilation

28

Piaget's position is called _____ because he argued children construct schema, organized patterns of thought or action, based on the experiences they have actively exploring the environment.

contructivism

29

Piaget predicted that certain behaviors and ways of thinking characterize individuals at ______.

different ages (stage theory)

30

Stage theories share the common tenet that certain characteristics will occur in predictable sequences and _______ in the life of the individual.

at certain times

31

According to Piaget, there are ___ stages of cognitive.

four

32

Piaget's theory of cognitive development stages

sensorimotor stage
properational stage
concrete operations
formal operations

33

Piaget's stage from birth to around age two.

sensorimotor stage

34

Piaget's stage from ages two to seven.

preoperational stage

35

Piaget's ______ stage is characterized by egocentrism, rigidity of though, semilogical reasoning, and limited social cognition. This stage describes the way children in preschool and kindergarten go about problem solving.

preoperational

36

_____ operations, is the beginning of operational thinking and describes the thinking of children between the ages of seven and eleven.

concrete

37

During concrete operations they are able to take into consideration viewpoints other than their own. Understand reciprocity, conservation and ______.

reversibility

38

This stage of cognitive development is the threshold to higher-level learning for students.

concrete operations

39

The last stage of cognitive development and opens wide the door for higher ordered, and critical thinking.

formal operations

40

_________ extended Piaget's model of cognitive development to the study of the development of moral reasoning.

Kohlberg

41

A newer approach to studying cognitive development is the ________ approach.

information processing

42

This theoretical perspective uses the computer as a metaphor for the human mind and studies how the human mind processes information.

information processing approach

43

Learning theory or the _______ describes developmental change as the product of learning.

behaviorist perspective

44

_______ is defined as changes in observable behavior.

learning

45

John Watson founded a school of psychology called ______ from which the learning theory of development comes.

behaviorism

46

Pavlov, Watson, Skinner and Bandura were all important figures in ____.

behaviorism or behavioral psychology

47

Learning theory suggests that behavior is controlled by stimuli in the ______.

environment

48

Pavlov believed that learning takes place when ____ behavior comes under the control of a novel stimulus in the environment called ______.

reflexive
classical conditioning

49

A ____ is an unlearned behavior that is present at birth and occurs without conscious control or volition.

reflex

50

An _____ stimulus is the stimulus that automatically elicits a motor response without training or conditioning.

unconditioned (UCS)

51

The untrained motor response is called the ________.

unconditioned response (UCR)

52

A stimulus that is consistently paired with the UCS is called the _______ stimulus.

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

53

Pavlov observed ____ when a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli similar to the original CS.

generalization

54

The strength of the response is determined by the degree of similarity between the original CS and the _____ in generalization

test stimulus

55

_______ is the gradual process of conditioning a response to only occur to a specific stimulus, e.g. a bell of a certain tone, rather than a collection of tones that are similar in frequency.

Discrimination

56

Pavlov's term for the process that reverses conditioning in the classical conditioning paradigm. This is accomplished by successively presenting the CS without the uCS.

extinction

57

Watson extended the work of ______ by studying classical conditioning of emotional responses in children.

Pavlov

58

Watson believed that at birth we have a small number of _____ responses in our behavioral repertoire which include love, fear, and anger that we associate to environmental stimuli.

emotional

59

Watson's experiment with _____ tried to condition fear in children.

Little Albert - rat

60

Watson, Raynor, and Jones serves as the foundation for the classical conditioning theory of ______ and irrational fears.

phobias

61

An American psychologist, BF Skinner, developed a learning theory called ______.

operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning

62

Skinner's term for rewarding a behavior is called _____.

reinforcement

63

Skinner believed that reinforcement and punishment, control the _____ of behavior.

shaping

64

A ____ reinforcement is a reward that is experienced after a behavioral response. This encourages the response will be repeated in the future.

positive

65

A _____ reinforcement is an unpleasant condition is removed when the behavioral response is emitted.

negative

66

_______ introduced the idea that changes in behavior are acquired not only through the processes of conditioning, but also through observational learning.

Bandura

67

____ is observing the behavior of a model and then later imitating that behavior.

Modeling

68

Bandar went on to study the factors that control modeling, including what influences one's choice of a model and the underlying _______ required for modeling, such as self efficacy beliefs.

cognitive processing

69

_____ is the subjective judgement a person makes that he or she will be successful in the attempt to imitate a model.

Self-efficacy

70

Although individuals are more in control of their own behavior in the social cognitive theory, ______ and _____ still play a role in learning.

reinforcement and punishment

71

Bandura used the term _____ for the affect that seeing a model being reinforced has in observational learning. If the model is observed being reinforced, it is more likely a cild will imitate that model.

vicarious reinforcement

72

Psychodynamic theories also called psychoanalytic theories of personality descend from _____ and his theory of personality.

Freud

73

For most psychodynamic theorists, personality is mainly _____.

unconscious, beyond our awareness

74

Early experiences with _____ shape personalities, according to psychodynamic theorists.

parents

75

Freud's _____ approach to personality developed as a result of his work with adult patients who had psychiatric and emotional problems.

psychodynamic

76

Freud's theory emphasized childhood experiences determine ______.

adult personality

77

Freud's theory emphasized ______ mental processes influence everyday behavior.

unconscious

78

Freud's theory emphasized ____ causes most human behavior.

conflict

79

Freud believed that each adult personality consists of an id, ego, and _____.

superego

80

____ develops at birth and consists of the pleasure principle: unconscious instincts ; irrational; seeks instant gratification; contains the libido.

Id

81

Ego develops at around ______ and is the reality principle; mediates id and reality; executive branch.

six months old

82

_____ develops around six years and is the morality principle; personal conscience; personal ideals.

superego

83

The id always seeks pleasure to avoid ____.

pain

84

The ____ evolves from the id and deals with the demands of reality. It makes the rational decisions and tries to bring individual id demands to within the norms of society. However the ____ cannot determine if something is right or wrong.

ego
ego

85

The _____ is capable of deterring if something is right or wrong because it is our conscience. The _______ does not consider reality, only rules about moral behavior.

superego
superego

86

According to Freud, behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of ______ among the id, ego, and superego.

conflicts

87

Through the process he called _____, unwanted thoughts are pushed down into the unconscious.

repression

88

The _____ part of our personality consists of whatever we are aware of at any particular point in time.

conscious

89

The _____ contains material that is just below the surface of awareness but can be easily retrieved.

preconscious
i.e. your mothers birthdate...you were not thinking of it but can if you need to

90

Defense mechanisms are unconscious methods used by the ___ to distort reality and thereby protect us from anxiety.

ego

91

_____ can result from the irrational pleasure principle of the id or the superego causing guilty feelings about a real or imagined transgression.

anxiety

92

Common Defense Mechanisms

Rationalization
Repression
Reaction Formation
Regression
Projection
Displacement
Sublimation
Intellectualization
Denial

93

_____ is creating the false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.

rationalization
i.e. reducing guilt for cheating on your taxes by rationalizing "everyone does it"

94

____ is pushing unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into he unconscious.

repression
i.e. having no memory of an unpleasant experience

95

______ is behaving exactly the opposite of one's true feeling.

reaction formation
i.e. a mother who feels resentment toward a child may be overly cautious and protective

96

____ is the reversion to immature patterns of behavior.

regression
i.e. temper tantrums, sucking on your thumb, wetting the bed

97

_____ is attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, motives, or shortcomings to others.

projection
i.e. a wife who constantly suspects her husband of having an affair because unconsciously she has thought of having an affair

98

______ is the shifting unacceptable feelings from their original source to a safer , substitute target.

displacement
i.e. you are mad at your boss, but you do not yell at your boss; instead you become angry with a family member when you return home

99

____ is a useful, socially acceptable course of behavior replaces a socially unacceptable or distasteful impulse.

sublimation
i.e. a person who feels aggression due to a lack of control plays an aggressive game of basketball with friends every other day

100

_______ is when dealing with a stressful situation in an intellectual and unemotional manner, a person detached him or herself from the stress.

intellectualization
i.e. a person who has lost a family member due to an illness will speak of the metal terminology of the illness, but will not discuss the emotional aspects of the illness

101

____ is when you deny a very unpleasant thing that happened.

denial

102

Freud believed we go through ____ stages of psychosexual development in forming our personalities.

five

103

Freuds Psychosexual Stages

Oral
Anal
Phalic
Latency
Genital

104

The ____ stage is the first, occurs from 0-1 years old and the erogenous zone is the mouth.

oral

105

Stimulation of the mouth produces pleasure, infants enjoys sucking, biting, chewing during the psychosexual stage called _____.

oral

106

The ___ stage is the second stage of the psychosexual stages and occurs from age 1-3, the associated erogenous zone is the ____.

anal
anus

107

The ____ stage is the third stage of Freud's psychosexual stages, occurs from age 3-6 years and the associated erogenous zone is the genitals.

phallic

108

The ____ stage is the fourth of Feud's psychosexual stages, occurs from age 6-12 years and there is no associated erogenous zone.

latency

109

The ____ stage is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual stages, occurs from puberty onward and the associated erogenous zone is the genitals.

genitals

110

During the ____ stage, intimacy is established and sexual relations with others is the main focus.

genital

111

Sexual feeling are repressed during the _____ psychosexual stage and social contacts beyond immediate family are expanded. Focus shifts to school and same-sex friendships.

latency

112

During the ____ psychosexual stage toilet training is a major task and expelling and retaining feces produces pleasure.

anal

113

Self stimulation of genitals produces pleasure. During the ____ psychosexual stage there is a successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with the same sex parent.

phallic

114

Freud felt that the first three psychosexual stages were the most important for ____.

personality development

115

Examples of traits related to fixation
obsessive eating
smoking
drinking
sarcasm
aggressiveness
overly demanding

ORAL STAGE

116

Examples of traits related to fixation
Extreme messiness
overly orderly
fear of dirt
loverly giving
love of bathroom humor
rebelliousness
overly concerned about punctuality

ANAL STAGE

117

Examples of traits related to fixation
Excessive masturbation
flirts frequently
excessively modest
overly proud
promiscuity

PHALLIC Stage

118

_____ also developed a psychodynamic theory of personality development but is very different from Freud.

Erik Erickson

119

____ believes that personality continues to develop over the entire life span.

Erik Erikson

120

Ericsson did not stress ____ motives or desires are the cause of personality development but that events that occur early in development can leave a permanent mark on one's later social-emotional development.

unconcious

121

Ericsson offered a ____ theory but called is psychosocial as opposed to psychosexual.

stage

122

______ argued that the developing individual is faced with social emotional tasks that progressively enable the individual to function in the social world.

Erikson

123

Ericsson's psychosocial stage theory has ____ stages.

8

124

Erickson believed that during each stage of the psychosocial stage the ____ develops a strength that enables success in this endeavor, or a weakness that makes the process of adopting developmental tasks more and more difficult.

ego

125

In each stage of the ____ theory the polarities are pairs of potential positive and negative resolutions to each stage's crisis.

psychosocial

126

Erikson is one of the few theorists to discuss development ____.

throughout the life span

127

The first stage of the psychosocial theory is _____ vs _____ which occurs from birth to 1 years of age.

trust vs mistrust

128

During the trust vs mistrust stage the infant's needs must be met by responsive, sensitive caretakers. If this occurs, a basic sense of trust and optimism develops. If not, ____ and fear of the future results.

mistrust

129

Children begin to express self-control by climbing , exploring, touching, and toilet training during the ____ vs ____ stage. Parents can foster autonomy by encouraging children to try new things, but if restrained or punished too harshly, shame and doubt can develop.

autonomy vs shame and doubt

130

The autonomy vs shame and doubt stage occurs in children ages _____.

1-3

131

____ vs _____ occurs in children ages 3-6 years old.

initiative vs guilt

132

Children are asked to assume more responsibility. Through play, children learn to plan, undertake, and carry out a task during the ___ vs ____ stage. Parents can encourage initiative or discourage freedom and imagination causing children to feel guilty.

initiative vs guilt

133

_____ vs _____ occurs in children 6-11 years old.

industry vs inferiority

134

Elementary school children learn skills that are valued by society during the ____ vs ____ stage. Success or failure while learning these skills can have lasting effects on a child's feelings of adequacy.

industry vs inferiority

135

______ vs ____ occurs during adolescence.

identity vs role confusion

136

______ vs ____ occurs during young adulthood.

intimacy versus isolation

137

If we have successfully resolved the identity crisis, then we can be warm and open with others. If we are unsure of our identity or if we have developed an unhealthy identity, then we may avoid others during the ___ vs ____ stage.

intimacy vs isolation

138

______ vs _____ occurs during adulthood.

generatively vs stagnation

139

_____ vs ______ this stage centers around a concern for the next generation. Successful development shows adults sharing their life acquired wisdom and caring for the growth of the community. Complacency in this stage leads to stagnation.

generatively vs stagnation

140

_____ vs ____ occurs in late adulthood.

ego integrity vs despair

141

During the _____ vs ____ stage if a person looks back on life and believes they have lives a meaningful life than a sense of integrity develops. If their life was meaningless than they may feel despair.

ego integrity vs despair

142

The _____ theory of development argues that there is a bidirectional relationship between the child and the sociocultural environment, such that a child influences the people and the environments he or she interacts with influence the child's development. This is known as _____.

sociocultural
reciprocal determinism

143

Vygotsky and ______ are two theorists who emphasize the influence of sociocultural contexts on development.

Bronfenbreener

144

_____ offered a sociocultural theory of cognitive development.

Vygotsky

145

Bronfenbrenner developed an ______ systems theory of development also called the bioecological approach.

ecological

146

Vygotsky was critical of ___ because he believed they did not take into account the social influences on cognition into consideration. A child interacts with peers and adults, not just objects in the environment.

Piaget

147

_____ believed that a great deal of cognitive growth comes form social interactions.

Vygotsky

148

______ is cognitive support provided to a younger thinker by a more advanced thinker is a term used by Vygotsky.

Scaffolding

149

In the sociocultural theory , the zone of proximal development is the range of performance on a particular ____.

taks

150

In Vygotsky's theory the ____ level of performance appears when the child is working alone and the upper limit of performance appears when the child is working with a ____.

lower
more skilled other

151

Cognitive development is therefore socially mediated according to _____.

Vygotsky

152

Bronfenbrenner's bioecological approach describes development as taking place within the context of ______.

several systems

153

Bronfenbreener studied how the psychological and ____ changes within a developing child influence his or her environment, and in turn how various environmental systems influence the child's developmental outcomes.

biological

154

Bronfenbrenner's ______ is made up of the immediate environmental contexts the child experiences directly, like the family.

microsystem

155

Bronfenbrenner's _____ is made up of the interrelationships between events of different microsystems.

meosystem

156

Bronfenbrenner's ____ includes the significant others in the child's life that directly experience but the child does not.

exosystem

157

Bronfenbrenner's ____ is the larger cultural context in which all of the other systems exist.

macrosystems

158

The interaction of these two microsystems occurs in the ______.

meosystems

159

A parent's work is an example of an ____ because it is indirect influence of a child's development.

exosystem

160

Ethology and evolutionary psychology are theoretical perspectives on development that grew out of _____ theory of evolution.

Charles Darwin

161

There are never enough resources in the environment for all members of a species to survive, so there is a constant struggle for existence among members of a species isa tenet of ______ theory.

Darwin's

162

There are variations in traits and ______ among members of a species that are the product of chance combinations of inherited traits from their ancestors is a characteristic of Darwin's theory of evolution.

abilities

163

Some chance variations in traits better enable members of a species to _______ and survive in the environment in which they live according to Darwin's theory of evolution.

adapt

164

Those members who do survive, reproduce, passing on the chance variations they inherited into the ____ is a characteristic of Darwin's theory of evolution.

gene pool

165

Through _____, species' traits evolve very gradually over time. Chance variations that do not increase chances of survival evolve out of the species' gene pool. Those chance variations that do increase survival are passed down to _____.

natural selection
offspring

166

Both ____ and evolutionary psychology see human development within the framework of Darwin's theory of evolution.

ethology

167

Ethology and evolutionary psychology both attempt to identify the historical roots of human traits and ____ in evolution and to understand their adaptive value.

behaviors

168

____ conduct comparative studies of humans and other animal species like the chimpanzee.

Ethologists

169

An important finding of ethologists is that there are ______ in development. A ____ is a narrow frame of time within which a behavior must develop or it will never appear.

critical periods
critical period
i.e. following a mother duck

170

Critical periods in animals is similar to ___ periods in humans.

sensitive

171

____ periods are windows of time that is the most conducive for the development of a human behavior or skill, like language, but humans can still acquire such behavior to some degree beyond this time.

sensistive

172

Evolutionary psychologists focus on discovering the adaptive, survival value of specific animal or human ____.

behaviors

173

Evolutionary psychologists view human development over the _____ as recapitulating the evolution of our species.

life span

174

Lorenz and ____ are the most influential theorists within evolutionary psychology.

bowlby