Flashcards in Chapter 2: Theories of Development Deck (174):
The _____ versus nurture controversy is an old argument in philosophy and psychology.
This debate is whether our development is influenced more by the experiences we have, _____, or by the genetic endowment we inherit from our biological parents, _____.
nurture vs. nature
According to the nurture side, at birth the human mind is like a blank slate, or ______, that experience writes upon.
Most theorists agree that it is implausible for nature or nurture to be the _____ on our growth and development.
The goal of research in development today is to understand the relative influence of each factor, nature and nurture, in the development of _______ or abilities like intelligence or personality.
_______ or stage theories argue that development progresses through a series of stages.
Each stage is seen as involving a ____.
In discontinuity, or stage theories, the developing person is seen as not changing quantitatively, but ______.
_____ theories, suggest development is best described as a steady growth process.
Developmental change is described as occurring in small steps or _____. Skills and behavior improve but do not change qualitatively.
An older child can remember more information compared to a younger child, but does not go about remembering the information in a _____ different way.
Freud and _____ are theorists that believe development is complete once adolescense is reached.
Life span theories of development argue that growth and change continue to occur through out the ______.
the entire lifespan
____ is a theorist who took a life span perspective.
______ argued that all children progress through the same stages of cognitive development in the same order and at the same approximate age.
Piaget believed in a ______ of cognitive development.
______ has created an ecological systems theory of development that describes various contexts in which development takes place and how the reciprocal relationships between the child and the people in these sociocultural contexts affect the child's development.
Psychologists who argue for context-specific devellopment point out there are differences in development between people from _____ cultures and those who are from _______ cultures.
A ____ culture places greater value on the common good than individual achievement.
An ____ culture values individual achievement and the pursuit of individual goals.
Until his death in 1980, ____ was a predominant figure in the filed of cognitive psychology.
No other single individual has had a greater influence on educational practices than _____.
Piaget's ______ theory is based on the notion that cognitive abilities are developed as individuals mature physiologically and have opportunities to interact with their environment.
Piaget stated that individuals interacting with their environment was referred to as equilibration of _______ and _______ cycles or processes.
accommodation and assimilation
When someone encounters a new or novel stimulus they are brought into a state of _____.
disequilibrium (thrown off balance)
_____ is the adjusting of prior knowledge gained through former experiences and interactions.
_____ is the fitting together the new information with what has been previously known or understood.
Piaget's position is called _____ because he argued children construct schema, organized patterns of thought or action, based on the experiences they have actively exploring the environment.
Piaget predicted that certain behaviors and ways of thinking characterize individuals at ______.
different ages (stage theory)
Stage theories share the common tenet that certain characteristics will occur in predictable sequences and _______ in the life of the individual.
at certain times
According to Piaget, there are ___ stages of cognitive.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development stages
Piaget's stage from birth to around age two.
Piaget's stage from ages two to seven.
Piaget's ______ stage is characterized by egocentrism, rigidity of though, semilogical reasoning, and limited social cognition. This stage describes the way children in preschool and kindergarten go about problem solving.
_____ operations, is the beginning of operational thinking and describes the thinking of children between the ages of seven and eleven.
During concrete operations they are able to take into consideration viewpoints other than their own. Understand reciprocity, conservation and ______.
This stage of cognitive development is the threshold to higher-level learning for students.
The last stage of cognitive development and opens wide the door for higher ordered, and critical thinking.
_________ extended Piaget's model of cognitive development to the study of the development of moral reasoning.
A newer approach to studying cognitive development is the ________ approach.
This theoretical perspective uses the computer as a metaphor for the human mind and studies how the human mind processes information.
information processing approach
Learning theory or the _______ describes developmental change as the product of learning.
_______ is defined as changes in observable behavior.
John Watson founded a school of psychology called ______ from which the learning theory of development comes.
Pavlov, Watson, Skinner and Bandura were all important figures in ____.
behaviorism or behavioral psychology
Learning theory suggests that behavior is controlled by stimuli in the ______.
Pavlov believed that learning takes place when ____ behavior comes under the control of a novel stimulus in the environment called ______.
A ____ is an unlearned behavior that is present at birth and occurs without conscious control or volition.
An _____ stimulus is the stimulus that automatically elicits a motor response without training or conditioning.
The untrained motor response is called the ________.
unconditioned response (UCR)
A stimulus that is consistently paired with the UCS is called the _______ stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Pavlov observed ____ when a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli similar to the original CS.
The strength of the response is determined by the degree of similarity between the original CS and the _____ in generalization
_______ is the gradual process of conditioning a response to only occur to a specific stimulus, e.g. a bell of a certain tone, rather than a collection of tones that are similar in frequency.
Pavlov's term for the process that reverses conditioning in the classical conditioning paradigm. This is accomplished by successively presenting the CS without the uCS.
Watson extended the work of ______ by studying classical conditioning of emotional responses in children.
Watson believed that at birth we have a small number of _____ responses in our behavioral repertoire which include love, fear, and anger that we associate to environmental stimuli.
Watson's experiment with _____ tried to condition fear in children.
Little Albert - rat
Watson, Raynor, and Jones serves as the foundation for the classical conditioning theory of ______ and irrational fears.
An American psychologist, BF Skinner, developed a learning theory called ______.
operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning
Skinner's term for rewarding a behavior is called _____.
Skinner believed that reinforcement and punishment, control the _____ of behavior.
A ____ reinforcement is a reward that is experienced after a behavioral response. This encourages the response will be repeated in the future.
A _____ reinforcement is an unpleasant condition is removed when the behavioral response is emitted.
_______ introduced the idea that changes in behavior are acquired not only through the processes of conditioning, but also through observational learning.
____ is observing the behavior of a model and then later imitating that behavior.
Bandar went on to study the factors that control modeling, including what influences one's choice of a model and the underlying _______ required for modeling, such as self efficacy beliefs.
_____ is the subjective judgement a person makes that he or she will be successful in the attempt to imitate a model.
Although individuals are more in control of their own behavior in the social cognitive theory, ______ and _____ still play a role in learning.
reinforcement and punishment
Bandura used the term _____ for the affect that seeing a model being reinforced has in observational learning. If the model is observed being reinforced, it is more likely a cild will imitate that model.
Psychodynamic theories also called psychoanalytic theories of personality descend from _____ and his theory of personality.
For most psychodynamic theorists, personality is mainly _____.
unconscious, beyond our awareness
Early experiences with _____ shape personalities, according to psychodynamic theorists.
Freud's _____ approach to personality developed as a result of his work with adult patients who had psychiatric and emotional problems.
Freud's theory emphasized childhood experiences determine ______.
Freud's theory emphasized ______ mental processes influence everyday behavior.
Freud's theory emphasized ____ causes most human behavior.
Freud believed that each adult personality consists of an id, ego, and _____.
____ develops at birth and consists of the pleasure principle: unconscious instincts ; irrational; seeks instant gratification; contains the libido.
Ego develops at around ______ and is the reality principle; mediates id and reality; executive branch.
six months old
_____ develops around six years and is the morality principle; personal conscience; personal ideals.
The id always seeks pleasure to avoid ____.
The ____ evolves from the id and deals with the demands of reality. It makes the rational decisions and tries to bring individual id demands to within the norms of society. However the ____ cannot determine if something is right or wrong.
The _____ is capable of deterring if something is right or wrong because it is our conscience. The _______ does not consider reality, only rules about moral behavior.
According to Freud, behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of ______ among the id, ego, and superego.
Through the process he called _____, unwanted thoughts are pushed down into the unconscious.
The _____ part of our personality consists of whatever we are aware of at any particular point in time.
The _____ contains material that is just below the surface of awareness but can be easily retrieved.
i.e. your mothers birthdate...you were not thinking of it but can if you need to
Defense mechanisms are unconscious methods used by the ___ to distort reality and thereby protect us from anxiety.
_____ can result from the irrational pleasure principle of the id or the superego causing guilty feelings about a real or imagined transgression.
Common Defense Mechanisms
_____ is creating the false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
i.e. reducing guilt for cheating on your taxes by rationalizing "everyone does it"
____ is pushing unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into he unconscious.
i.e. having no memory of an unpleasant experience
______ is behaving exactly the opposite of one's true feeling.
i.e. a mother who feels resentment toward a child may be overly cautious and protective
____ is the reversion to immature patterns of behavior.
i.e. temper tantrums, sucking on your thumb, wetting the bed
_____ is attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, motives, or shortcomings to others.
i.e. a wife who constantly suspects her husband of having an affair because unconsciously she has thought of having an affair
______ is the shifting unacceptable feelings from their original source to a safer , substitute target.
i.e. you are mad at your boss, but you do not yell at your boss; instead you become angry with a family member when you return home
____ is a useful, socially acceptable course of behavior replaces a socially unacceptable or distasteful impulse.
i.e. a person who feels aggression due to a lack of control plays an aggressive game of basketball with friends every other day
_______ is when dealing with a stressful situation in an intellectual and unemotional manner, a person detached him or herself from the stress.
i.e. a person who has lost a family member due to an illness will speak of the metal terminology of the illness, but will not discuss the emotional aspects of the illness
____ is when you deny a very unpleasant thing that happened.
Freud believed we go through ____ stages of psychosexual development in forming our personalities.
Freuds Psychosexual Stages
The ____ stage is the first, occurs from 0-1 years old and the erogenous zone is the mouth.
Stimulation of the mouth produces pleasure, infants enjoys sucking, biting, chewing during the psychosexual stage called _____.
The ___ stage is the second stage of the psychosexual stages and occurs from age 1-3, the associated erogenous zone is the ____.
The ____ stage is the third stage of Freud's psychosexual stages, occurs from age 3-6 years and the associated erogenous zone is the genitals.
The ____ stage is the fourth of Feud's psychosexual stages, occurs from age 6-12 years and there is no associated erogenous zone.
The ____ stage is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual stages, occurs from puberty onward and the associated erogenous zone is the genitals.
During the ____ stage, intimacy is established and sexual relations with others is the main focus.
Sexual feeling are repressed during the _____ psychosexual stage and social contacts beyond immediate family are expanded. Focus shifts to school and same-sex friendships.
During the ____ psychosexual stage toilet training is a major task and expelling and retaining feces produces pleasure.
Self stimulation of genitals produces pleasure. During the ____ psychosexual stage there is a successful resolution of this conflict results in identification with the same sex parent.
Freud felt that the first three psychosexual stages were the most important for ____.
Examples of traits related to fixation
Examples of traits related to fixation
fear of dirt
love of bathroom humor
overly concerned about punctuality
Examples of traits related to fixation
_____ also developed a psychodynamic theory of personality development but is very different from Freud.
____ believes that personality continues to develop over the entire life span.
Ericsson did not stress ____ motives or desires are the cause of personality development but that events that occur early in development can leave a permanent mark on one's later social-emotional development.
Ericsson offered a ____ theory but called is psychosocial as opposed to psychosexual.
______ argued that the developing individual is faced with social emotional tasks that progressively enable the individual to function in the social world.
Ericsson's psychosocial stage theory has ____ stages.
Erickson believed that during each stage of the psychosocial stage the ____ develops a strength that enables success in this endeavor, or a weakness that makes the process of adopting developmental tasks more and more difficult.
In each stage of the ____ theory the polarities are pairs of potential positive and negative resolutions to each stage's crisis.
Erikson is one of the few theorists to discuss development ____.
throughout the life span
The first stage of the psychosocial theory is _____ vs _____ which occurs from birth to 1 years of age.
trust vs mistrust
During the trust vs mistrust stage the infant's needs must be met by responsive, sensitive caretakers. If this occurs, a basic sense of trust and optimism develops. If not, ____ and fear of the future results.
Children begin to express self-control by climbing , exploring, touching, and toilet training during the ____ vs ____ stage. Parents can foster autonomy by encouraging children to try new things, but if restrained or punished too harshly, shame and doubt can develop.
autonomy vs shame and doubt
The autonomy vs shame and doubt stage occurs in children ages _____.
____ vs _____ occurs in children ages 3-6 years old.
initiative vs guilt
Children are asked to assume more responsibility. Through play, children learn to plan, undertake, and carry out a task during the ___ vs ____ stage. Parents can encourage initiative or discourage freedom and imagination causing children to feel guilty.
initiative vs guilt
_____ vs _____ occurs in children 6-11 years old.
industry vs inferiority
Elementary school children learn skills that are valued by society during the ____ vs ____ stage. Success or failure while learning these skills can have lasting effects on a child's feelings of adequacy.
industry vs inferiority
______ vs ____ occurs during adolescence.
identity vs role confusion
______ vs ____ occurs during young adulthood.
intimacy versus isolation
If we have successfully resolved the identity crisis, then we can be warm and open with others. If we are unsure of our identity or if we have developed an unhealthy identity, then we may avoid others during the ___ vs ____ stage.
intimacy vs isolation
______ vs _____ occurs during adulthood.
generatively vs stagnation
_____ vs ______ this stage centers around a concern for the next generation. Successful development shows adults sharing their life acquired wisdom and caring for the growth of the community. Complacency in this stage leads to stagnation.
generatively vs stagnation
_____ vs ____ occurs in late adulthood.
ego integrity vs despair
During the _____ vs ____ stage if a person looks back on life and believes they have lives a meaningful life than a sense of integrity develops. If their life was meaningless than they may feel despair.
ego integrity vs despair
The _____ theory of development argues that there is a bidirectional relationship between the child and the sociocultural environment, such that a child influences the people and the environments he or she interacts with influence the child's development. This is known as _____.
Vygotsky and ______ are two theorists who emphasize the influence of sociocultural contexts on development.
_____ offered a sociocultural theory of cognitive development.
Bronfenbrenner developed an ______ systems theory of development also called the bioecological approach.
Vygotsky was critical of ___ because he believed they did not take into account the social influences on cognition into consideration. A child interacts with peers and adults, not just objects in the environment.
_____ believed that a great deal of cognitive growth comes form social interactions.
______ is cognitive support provided to a younger thinker by a more advanced thinker is a term used by Vygotsky.
In the sociocultural theory , the zone of proximal development is the range of performance on a particular ____.
In Vygotsky's theory the ____ level of performance appears when the child is working alone and the upper limit of performance appears when the child is working with a ____.
more skilled other
Cognitive development is therefore socially mediated according to _____.
Bronfenbrenner's bioecological approach describes development as taking place within the context of ______.
Bronfenbreener studied how the psychological and ____ changes within a developing child influence his or her environment, and in turn how various environmental systems influence the child's developmental outcomes.
Bronfenbrenner's ______ is made up of the immediate environmental contexts the child experiences directly, like the family.
Bronfenbrenner's _____ is made up of the interrelationships between events of different microsystems.
Bronfenbrenner's ____ includes the significant others in the child's life that directly experience but the child does not.
Bronfenbrenner's ____ is the larger cultural context in which all of the other systems exist.
The interaction of these two microsystems occurs in the ______.
A parent's work is an example of an ____ because it is indirect influence of a child's development.
Ethology and evolutionary psychology are theoretical perspectives on development that grew out of _____ theory of evolution.
There are never enough resources in the environment for all members of a species to survive, so there is a constant struggle for existence among members of a species isa tenet of ______ theory.
There are variations in traits and ______ among members of a species that are the product of chance combinations of inherited traits from their ancestors is a characteristic of Darwin's theory of evolution.
Some chance variations in traits better enable members of a species to _______ and survive in the environment in which they live according to Darwin's theory of evolution.
Those members who do survive, reproduce, passing on the chance variations they inherited into the ____ is a characteristic of Darwin's theory of evolution.
Through _____, species' traits evolve very gradually over time. Chance variations that do not increase chances of survival evolve out of the species' gene pool. Those chance variations that do increase survival are passed down to _____.
Both ____ and evolutionary psychology see human development within the framework of Darwin's theory of evolution.
Ethology and evolutionary psychology both attempt to identify the historical roots of human traits and ____ in evolution and to understand their adaptive value.
____ conduct comparative studies of humans and other animal species like the chimpanzee.
An important finding of ethologists is that there are ______ in development. A ____ is a narrow frame of time within which a behavior must develop or it will never appear.
i.e. following a mother duck
Critical periods in animals is similar to ___ periods in humans.
____ periods are windows of time that is the most conducive for the development of a human behavior or skill, like language, but humans can still acquire such behavior to some degree beyond this time.
Evolutionary psychologists focus on discovering the adaptive, survival value of specific animal or human ____.
Evolutionary psychologists view human development over the _____ as recapitulating the evolution of our species.