Chapter 11: Regulation of Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11: Regulation of Gene Expression Deck (53):
1

True or false: is gene expression precisely regulated?

true

2

Constitutive genes

actively expressed all the time

3

Inducible genes

expressed only when their proteins are needed by the cell

4

Transcription factors

regulatory proteins that controls whether or not a gene is active

5

repressor

a type of transcription factor
binds near promoter to prevent transcription in negative regulation

6

Activator

binds to stimulate transctipation in positive regulation

7

virus

bad news wrapped in protein
aceullar
not cells
do not carry out cell processes

8

lytic cycle

immediately produces virions, which release as the cell breaks open

9

Lysogenic cycle

virus incorporates DNA into host DNA in a dormant phase

10

early stage of lytic cycle

viral genes near promoter are transcribed
mess up regular cell stuff

11

late stage of lytoc cycle

viral genes transcribed, make proteins, lyse cell

12

Reverse transcripitase

makes DNA that is complimentary to RNA b
degrade RNA two DNA

13

provirus

viral DNA integrated in host DNA

14

inducer

switches genes on

15

atructural genes

specify the primary structure of a protein molevule that is not involved in regulation

16

Operon

cluster of genes with a single promoter

17

operator

part of operon
near promoter controls transcription of structural genes

18

inducible operon

turned off unless needed

19

repressible operon

turned on unless needed

20

What is the key to the lac operon regulatory system?

the repressor protein

21

co-repressor

part of repressible operon
when it binds to the repressor, the repressor will bind to the DNA/operator amd inhibit transcription

22

true or false: generally inducible systems control catabolic pathways (turned on when the substrate is available) while repressible systems control anabolic pathways (turned on until the concentration of the product becomes excesssive)

true

23

Sigma factors

bind to RNA polymerase and direct it to specific promoters

24

sporulation

a new alternative style that all the hip young bacteria are trying out
reduce metabolism and form a tough spore coat

25

TATA box

most common core Eukaryotic promoter sequence

26

General transcription factors

bind to core promoter, allowing RNA poly to bind to promoter
wing women

27

enhancers

DNA sequences that bind to activators

28

silencers

DNA sequences that bind to repressors

29

NFAT

transcription factors that control the expression of the bases of DNA available for H bonding

30

True or false, if they bind ti the same transcription factors, the expression of genes can be coordinated

true

31

Can epigenetic changes be passed on to daughter cells?

yes

32

Epigenetic changes

reversible, non-sequence specific alterations to either the DNA or the chromsomal proteins that package the DNA in the nucleus

33

DNA methyltransferase

add methyl groups to cytosine covalently

34

CpG islands

regions r ich in C residues adjaacent to G ones
lots of promoters

35

Maintenance methylase

catalyzes formation of methyl cytosine bond

36

demethylase

removes methyl from cytosine

37

heterochromatn

dark
usyally not transcribed

38

euchomatin

DNA ---> RNA region
a type of chromatin

39

Barr body

heterochromatic
inactivated gene hanging out in nucleus

40

Chromatin remodeling

alterationo of chromatin structure

41

Histone

DNA wraps around it
+ chare

42

nucleisimw

histone + DNA

43

histone acetyltransferases

add acetyl griyos to positiveky charged amino acuis
neutralize charge, relweasing it from DNA
promote transcription

44

histone deacetylase

remove acetyl groups from histones, preventing transcription

45

True or false: the environment plays a role in epigenetic modifications

true

46

Alternative splicing

messing up the splicing of introns and exons
can help generate different prtoteins with different jobs
ex. HIV
Drosophila

47

MicroRNA miRNA

really really small bits of transcribed DNA from noncoding regions

48

Inhibition of translation with miRNAs

one way to reulate translation

49

Modification of the 5' cap

a way to modify translation, needs cap for translation

50

Translation repressor proteins

a way to modify translation
block translatation by binding to mRNA and preventing attachement to the ribosome

51

Translational repressor prtein

prevents transaltion

52

Uniquitin

a certain common chain of amino acids

53

Proteasome

binds to protein-polyubiquitin molecule
break down proteins