Chapter 30: Animal Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30: Animal Hormones Deck (42):
1

Target cell

the cell that signals travel to
have receptor proteins that recognize and bind to a signal even at low concentrations

2

Endocrine system

cells that produce and release hormones

3

Endocrine secretion

the secretion of substances into the extracellular fluid

4

Exocrine secretion

Secretion of substances into the outside world OR an internal body cavity

5

Is sweating endocrine or exocrine secretion?

exocrine secretion

6

Is the release of enzymes into the digestive tract endocrine or exocrine secretion?

exocrine secretion

7

Endocrine cells

cells that secrete endocrine signals
some are in larger organs on their lonesome [like in the digestive tract]
other hand out together to form organs

8

Endocrine glands

Secretory organs
Like the thyroid

9

Hormones

Long distance endocrine signals

10

Peptide and Protein hormones

relatively large
water soluble
easily transported in the blood
packaged in vesicles and released by exocytosis
Receptors for them MUST be on the exterior of the cell [because of polarity]
Biggest group of hormones

11

Steroid Hormones

Made from cholesterol
Four interlinked rings
Lipid-soluble
Pass through the membrane of cells
Don't dissolve well in blood, so they generally are carried by (guess what?) carrier proteins

12

Amine Hormones

Small molecules
from single amino acids
Polarity of amino acid determines whether or not the amino acid is soluble

13

Do sponges have nervous systems?

no, but they have intercellular communication

14

What controls molting??

Hormones [JH]

15

Instars

the growth stages between molts

16

What triggers a molt?

A blood meal

17

True or falseL Rhodinus survive for more than a week without its head

true `

18

True or false Rhodinus molts if decapitated an hour after its blood meal

false, one week

19

PTTH

protothoraciotropic hormone
controls molting in arthropods
produced by the brain

20

JH

juvenile hormone
determines the outcome of molting
in high concentrations, the bug becomes large juvenile after a molt
in low concentrations, the bug becomes an adult

21

complete metamorphosis

Dramatic Developmental change

22

Larva

what a fertilized egg hatches into

23

Pupation

the stage the larva enters after some number of molts

24

Pupa

major body reorganization
emerges as adult

25

What happens if a cell does not have a receptor for a particular protein?

It will not be affected by it

26

binding domain

part of peptide receptor
projects outside the plasma membrane

27

transmembrane domain

anchors receptor in protein

28

Cytoplasmic domain

initiates target cell response

29

fight-or-flight response

controlled by amine protein epinephrine
physiological response to stressful situations

30

adrenal glands

right above your kidneys
secrete epinephrine and norephinephrine

31

Adrenergic receptors

five different types
G-protein linked receptors
Two basic categories
a-adrenergic
and
b-adrenergic

32

b-adrenergic receptor

cause a faster and stronger heartbeat
skeletal muscles dilate for RUNNING
fat breakdown in liver energy

33

a-adrenergic receptors

cause blood vessels in the skin to constrict
causes pallor and cold hands and feet
shut down receptors in digestive system and decrease blood flow there

34

downregulation

Continuous high concentration of a hormone decreases the number of receptors in the target cell's cytoplasm
makes cells less sensitive
Ex. Type two diabetes

35

Upregulation

hormone is chronically low
make more receptors
ex. regular dose of beta blockers and go off medication, increase anxiety and bp

36

Neurohormones

hormones secreted by neurons

37

Pituitary

endocrine gland that serves as an intermediary between the nervous and endocrine systems
involved in the hormonal control of many physiological processes

38

anterior pituitary

releases four tropic hormones
makes and secretes its own hormones
but under control of hypothalamus

39

posterior pituitary

neurohormones released like ADH and oxytocin

40

tropic hormones

in control of endocrine glands

41

GH

acts on a wide variety of tissues to promote growth

42

portal blood vessels

begin in capillaries