Chapter 12: Genomes Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapter 12: Genomes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12: Genomes Deck (48):
1

Human Genome Project

small # of genes
2003 completion

2

=next-generation DNA sequencing

miniaturization techniques DNA replication PCR
1. cut up DNA
2. denature DNA by heat breaking hydrogen bonds
3. fragment attached at each e nd to short adapter sequences
4. Amplified by PCR to make so many copies

1. DNA poly adds nucleotides
2. DNA added one nucleotide at a time
3. FLUORESCE
4.remove tag and repeat synthesis
colors show things

3

Power of next generation DNA sequencing

fully automated and miniaturized
millions of different fragments are sequenced at the same time. This is called massively parallel
An expensive way to sequence large genomes. at the time od writing a complete genome could be sequenced in a few days
overlappingggggg

4

bioinformatics

Analyze DNA sequences using complex mathematics and computer programs

5

Functional genomics

biologists use sequence information to identify the functions of various parts of genomes
including
open reading frames, amino acid sequences of proteins, regulatory sequences, RNA genes, other noncoding sequences

6

open-reading frames

coding regions of genes
can be recognized by start and stop codon for coding and consensus sequences for introns
functional genomics

7

amino acid sequences of proteins

can be deduced from the DNA sequences of open reading frames by applying the genetic code
functional genomics

8

regulatory sequences

promoters and terminators for transcription
functional genomics

9

RNA genes

rRNA, tRNA, small nuclear RNA, and microRNA
functional genomics

10

Other noncoding sequences (functional genomics)

fucntional genomics
classified in various categories including centromeric and teolmerix regions, TRANSPOSONS, and repetitive

11

Comparative gentics

the comparison of a newly sequenced genome of parts thereof can be compared to other organisms

12

genetic determinism

person's phenotype is determined solely by his or her genotype

13

Proteomics

seeks to identify and characterize all expressed proteins

14

Proteome

sum total of the proteins produced by an organism
more complex than the genome

15

How do people analyze proteins and the proteome?

using electrical charge and size with gel electrophoresis to separate proteins and isolate them
mass spectrometry uses electromagnets to identify molecules by masses of their atoms
determine structures of molecules

16

Metablomics

aims to describe the metabolome of a tissue or organism under particular environmental conditions

17

metabolome

quantitative description of all of the metabolites in a cell or organism

18

primary metabolites

involved in normal processes such as intermediates in pathways like glycolysis
also hormones and other signaling molecules

19

secondary metabolites

often unique to particular organisms or groups of organisms often involved in special responses to the environment
ex. antibiotics made by microbes and chemicals made by plants that are used in defense

20

Features of of bacterial and archaeal genomes

relatively small single circular chromosome
compact most is protein coding with only short sequences
genes usually do not contain introns except rRNA and tRNA
addition to the main chromosome, often have plasmids

21

transposons

segements of DNA that can move form place to place in the genome and can move from one piece of DNA to another

22

Metagenomics

analyzing genes without isolating the intact organism
use pCR to amplify sequences in enviornmental samples to determine whether specific microbes were there

23

True or False: Eukaryotic genomes are larger than those of prokaryotes

true
more genes
which is like very not surprising

24

True or false: Eukaryotic genomes have more regulatory sequences

true
more complex

25

True or false: a lot of eukaryotic DNA is noncoding

true
ransom seuqences don't code for RNA

26

Yeast

single-celled eukaryotes
can live as haploid or diploid
lots of genes for targeting protein sinto organelles

27

nematode

only needs 10% if genes

28

drosophila

complex

29

arabidopsis

plant
flowering ]simpler
small

30

orthologs

genes with very similar sequences

31

gene families

closely related genes
came from duplkicated then mutated genes

32

pseudogenes

nonfunctional
result from loss of function mutations

33

Highly repetitive sequences

short seqeunces that are repeated thousands of time in tandem
not transcribed

34

short tandem repeats

1-5 bp can be repeated up to 100 times at a particular location
scattered about the genome

35

moderately repetitive sequences

repeated 10-1000 times in the rukaryotic genome
unclue genes which produce tRNA and rRNA
generally transposons

36

Retrotransposons

make RNA copies of themselves, which are then copied back into DNA before inserted into DNA
class I transposons

37

LTR retrotransposons

long terminal repeats of DNA sequences at each end
about 8% of human genome
a type of Retrotransposons

38

Non-LTR retrotransposons

a type of Retrotransposon
do not have LTR sequences at the ends
makde up of SINEs and LINEs

39

SINEs

short interspersed elements are up to 500 bp long and are transcribed but not translated
a type of non-LTR retrotransposon

40

LINEs

Long interspersed elements
up to 7000 bp long and some are transcribed and translated into proteins
a type of non-LTR retrotransposon

41

DNA transposons

do not use RNA intermediaries
excised from location and inserted in a new place without replication

42

single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

DNA sequence variations that involve single nucleotides
used to create genetic maps of organisms

43

haplotype

a piece of chromsome with a set of linked SNPs `

44

DNA microarray

a grid of microscopic spots of oligonucleotides arrayed on a solid surface
depend on hypbridization to identify SNPs
has DNA and RNA complementary to oligonuleotides

45

pharmacogenomics

the study of how an individual's genome affects his or her response to drugs or other agents
goal is to personalize drug treatment

46

Proteomics

proteins in families
lots of proteins just have reshuffled domains
disease

47

metabolomics

some progress needs to be related to physiology

48

DNA fingerprinting

a group og yrchniques used to identify particular individuals by their DNA the most common involves STR analysis