Chapter 21: The Evolution of Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: The Evolution of Plants Deck (23):
1

algae

aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes

2

Glaucophytes

microscopic, freshwater algae that people think are the sister group to rest of plants
chloroplasts have peptidoglycan between inner and outer membranes (like cyanobacteria)
this peptidoglycan is not in other photosynthetic eukaryotes

3

Red algae

multicellular
Phycoerythrin
phycocyanin
carotenoids
chlorophyll a
just need clear enough water to let light in and nutreints (otherwise, depth is a nonissue)
fresh water isn't their fave though, only a few species
not always red: depends on the ratio of phycoerythrin (high =red) to chlorophyll a (high = green) generally, deeper = red and shallower = green

4

Phycoerythrin

in red algae (often excessively)
a photosynthetic pigement

5

green algae

chlorophylls a and b
store photosynthetic products as starch in chloroplasts

6

green plants

chlorophylls a and b
store reserves of photosyntehsis products as startch in chloroplasts

7

Chlophytes

type of green algae

8

coleochaetophytes

type of green algae, part of steptophytes

9

charophytes

type of green algae, part of steptophytes

10

streptophyets

green algae, more closely related to land plants

11

embryophytes

land plants get called this because they develop from embryos protected by parents

12

vascular plants/tracheophytes

have well developed transport systems to transport stuff around the plant
have fluids called tracheids

13

nonvascular land plants

liverworts, hornworts, mosses
NOT A CLADE
no tracheids

14

Features that closest Green A;gae share with land plants

charophytes and land plants actually
plasmodesmata that join cytoplasms of adjacent cells
apical and branching growth
similar peroxisome contents, mechanics of mytosis and cytokinesis, chloroplast structure

15

Cuticle

adaptation for survival on land
coating of waxy lipids to retain water

16

Stomata

small closable openings in leaves and stems that regulate gas echange
adaptation for survival on land

17

Gametangia

organs that enclose plant gametes and make sure they don't dry out
adaptation for survival on land

18

Embryos

young plants in a protective structure
adaptation for survival on land

19

Pigments

adaptation for survival on land
protected from radiation

20

spore walls with sporopollenin

adaptation for survival on land
polymer protects spores from dessiccation and resists decay

21

Mutually beneficial association with fungi

adaptation for survival on land
get nutrients from soil

22

Sporangia

reproductive organs of sporophytes
cells in it undergo meiosis

23

What do nonvascular plants need to reproduce?

water!