Chapter 34: Neurons and Nervous Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 34: Neurons and Nervous Systems Deck (180):
1

neurons

nerve cells

2

glia

glial cells

3

cell body [of a neuron]

the nucleus and most organelles
where the typical cell ish stuff is found

4

dendrites

likes tree branches
trees
bring info from other sources to the cell body, like the branches bring the products of photosynthesis to the trunk [but not really]

5

excitable

neurons create and send electrical signals, which makes them excitable

6

T or F: Neurons are excitable

true

7

axon

a tail like projection that can be freakishly long, like almost as long as you are tall long.
telephone lines of the nervous systems
generate the action potentials, which will travel down the axon

8

nerve

a bundle of axons that come from tons of neurons

9

axon terminal

a bump like thing at the end of the axon that is super duper close to the target cell, forming a synapse

10

synapse

tiny gap across which two neurons communicate, either electrically or chemically [neurotransmitters]

11

presynaptic neuron

neuron that sends the signal

12

postsynaptic neuron

neuron that receives the signal

13

Astrocytes

Glia that surround the smallest, most permeable blood vessels that help prevent toxic chemicals from entering

14

Neuroplasticity

Synapse modification
Glia play a role in that

15

Glia

Don't generate action potentials
Can release neurotransmitters
Support developing neurons during embryonic development
Maintain extra cellular environment and provide energy substrates
Assist in neuronal repair

16

Blood-brain barrier

Prevents toxic chemicals and ether soluble/large molecules from reaching the brain

17

Microglia

Provide the brain with immune with defenses
Act as macrophages and mediators of immune responses

18

Oligodendrocytes

Glia in brain and spinal cord
Their membranes insulate axons

19

Schwann cells

A type of glia
Insulate axons outside the brain and spinal cord with their membranes

20

Myelin

A lipid rich no conductive sheath formed by the multilayered wrap of glial membranes

21

White matter

Parts of the nervous system consisting of misty myelinated axons

22

Gray matter

Areas of the nervous system that are rich in cell bodies

23

Multiple sclerosis

Demyelinating disease
Autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack proteins in the myelin

24

Neural networks

Information processing systems that neurons are organized into

25

Afferent neurons

Carry sensory info to nervous system

26

Sensory cells

Convert sensory stimuli into action potentials

27

Efferent neurons

Carry command to physiological and behavioral effectors like muscles and glands

28

Motor neurons

Type of effector neuron that carry commands to muscles

29

Interneurons

Integrate and store information and communicate between afferent and efferent

30

Ganglia

Clusters of neurons

31

Membrane potential

The difference in electrical potential across plasma membranes

32

Action potentials

Nerve impulses
large, sudden, and transient changes in membrane potential that travel alone axons and prompt the release of chemical signals at the axon terminals

33

Voltage

a measure of the difference in electrical charge between two points
potential energy
opposite charges will move together if given a chance

34

Is this an example of voltage difference?
Negative and positive poles of a battery are connected by a wire and an electric current flows through them [because of the possible voltage difference]

Yes

35

Membrane potential

a voltage across the cell membrane, caused by differing concentrations of ions on the outside and inside of the cell

36

Resting Potential

the membrane potential in an inactive neuron

37

What is the typical resting potential in a cell?

between -60 and -70 millivolts

38

True or false: The inside of the cell is electrically negative compared with the outside

True

39

True or False: Action Potential causes the inside of the cell to become more positive

True

40

sodium-potassium pump

aka sodium-potassium ATPase
Sends Na+ out of the cell because it has no need for excessive amounts of positivity and brings in smaller amounts of K+

41

True or False: K+ and Na+ are the predominant ions in the extracellular fluid

false: Na+ and Cl- are the predominant ions in the extracellular fluid, K+ is more prevalent inside of the cell

42

If Na+ could follow its concentration gradient, it would move __________ of the cell?

inside, K+ would leave

43

True or false: concentration gradients generate resting potential

true

44

True or false: concentration gradients can change resting potential

true

45

Would you notice a voltage difference between electrodes placed in two places outside of a resting neuron?

nope, the difference lies between outside and inside of the cell

46

What is the voltage difference between the outside and inside of neurons caused by?

leak currents

47

Leak currents

occur because there are open channels which embrace the spirit of heyyyy let's be inclusive and let everyone in/out you do you ion

48

K+ leakage

one of the leakiest
K+ diffuses outside of the membrane until the negative charge of the cell pulls it back

49

Electrochemical gradient

combination of the concentration gradient of the ion and the overall electric gradient of the cell

50

Equilibrium potential

of ions
no net movement
ex. K+ with an electrochemical gradient of 0 in a neuron

51

Voltage-gated channels

open or close in response to local changes in voltage across membrane

52

Chemically gated channels

open or close in response to certain molecules

53

Mechanically gated channels

open or close based on the mechanical force applied to the cell membrane

54

depolarized

ex. when neuron becomes more positive due to the influx of sodium ions

55

hyperpoalrized

neuron becomes more negative due to the influx of potassium ions

56

graded membrane potentials

small, local changes in membrane potential that vary in magnitude
integrate inputs in a cell
look at sum of all of the depolarizing and hyper polarizing
spreads quickly but decays as it spreads like water through leaky hose

57

True or False: graded membrane potentials can carry a signal all the way down an axon

false, only action potentials do this

58

axon hillock

region of the cell body at the base of the axon
high concentration of Na+ gates
must let in enough Na+ in order to reach the threshold for the neuron to fire

59

refractory period

Na+ gated channels can not open again
prevent signal form going backwards

60

all-or-nothing

DESCRIBES ACTION POTENTIALS oops caps lock
either firing or isn't, no different rates

61

Why all-or-nothing?

positive feedback loop for Na+ gated channels

62

`self-regenerating

spread by local current to neighbors

63

describe axon potentials

all-or-nothing self-regenerating

64

True or False: Action potentials travel along all axons at the same speed

False

65

True or False: Action potentials fire faster with long diameter

true

66

myelination

glia wrap themselves around axons

67

nodes of Ranvier

unmyelinated gaps

68

saltatory conduction

action potentials jump from node to node

69

chemical synapse

most common type
neurotransmitters are released from presynaptic cell and bind to receptors in postsynaptic cell, causing a change

70

Synaptic Cleft

space between presynaptic and postsynaptic cell

71

Electrical Synapses

join cytoplasms of pre and post synaptic cells through GAP Junctions

72

Gap Junctions

made up of proteins that create channels
ions flow through these allowing a passive spread of action potential
Pro: fast transmission
Con: don't allow for complicated integration from many different sources

73

connexins

proteins that make up gap junctions

74

neuromuscular junctions

synapses between motor neurons and skeletal muscles

75

bouton

end of axon terminal that contains vesicles full of neurotransmitters

76

ACh

neurotransmitter used by vertebrate neuromuscular synapses

77

Which voltage gate opens first at neuromuscular junctions?

Ca2+, the ion flows into the axon terminal where it causes ACh vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane

78

motor end plate

depression formed by the postsynaptic membrane of a neuromuscular junction, when ACh binds to this, Na+ and K+ flow through, making inside more positive and causing depolarization

79

excitatory

causes depolarization

80

inhibitory

causes hyperpolarization

81

Summation

integrating the influences of many different inputs

82

Spatial Summation

Adds up the simultaneous influences of synapses at different sites on a cell

83

Temporal Summation

adds up potentials generated at the same site in a rapid sequence

84

How can neurotransmitter action be terminated?

Enzymes destroy it
diffuse away
get taken up by cell membranes

85

True or false: Every neurotransmitter can have multiple receptor sites

True
ex. ACh has nicotinic receptors and muscarinic receptors

86

Muscarinic receptors

ACh, tend to be inhibitory

87

Nicotinic receptors

ACh, tend to be excitatory

88

Where do neurotransmitters come from?

cell body

89

Ionotropic Receptors

Ion channels
quick, short-lived responses

90

Metabotropic Receptors

Not ion channels, cause signaling cascades
slower and longer lived

91

Central Nervous System (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

92

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

neurons not in brain and spinal cord

93

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

output of CNS that control involuntary function
ex. heartbeat, sweat

94

Sympathetic Division

Part of ANS
fight or flight

95

Parasympathetic Division

part of ANS
rest and digest
parachute

96

Preganglionic Neuron

cell body in CNS that begins autonomic pathways

97

Nonadrenergic Neurons

release norepinephrine
sympathetic

98

Cholinergic Neurons

release acetylcholine
Parasympathetic

99

Pacemaker

part of heart that generates beat
receives input from both para and symp
they produce opp effects

100

Gray Matter

Rich in cell bodies

101

White Matter

rich in myelinated axons

102

spinal reflexes

information doesn't go to the brain, spinal cord just gives a simple reaction

103

monosynaptic reflexes

involve two neurons and one synapse
ex. knee jerk reaction
simplest of spinal reflexes

104

Antagonistic pairs of muscles

Flexors and extensors

105

Brainstem

pons, medulla, and midbrain

106

reticular system

network of brainstem neurons

107

diencephalon

central region of the brain
thalamus and hypothalamus--- maintains homeostasis

108

telencephalon

Surrounds diencephalon
limbic system

109

limbic system

instinctive reactions
pleasure, pain, fear, emotion, memory

110

Amygdala

Emotion
fear and fear memories

111

Hippocampus

memory

112

Cerebrum

outer part of telencephalon

113

Muscle spindles

Modified muscle fibers in the quadriceps that form stretch receptors that are inner cared by the neuron

114

Cerebrum

Dominant part of mammalian brain
Two hemispheres

115

Left and right cerebral hemispheres

Make up cerebrum
Cover outer parts of brain with the exception of cerebellum

116

Cerebral cortex

Outermost layer of cerebral cortex

117

Convolutions

Ridges that the cerebral cortex is folded into to maximize surface area

118

Association cortex

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher order information processing
Hard to define specific function because responsible for integration of information from many different senses and memory

119

Temporal lobe

Processes auditory info
Also visual processing
Association areas recognize, identify, and name objects

120

Agnosias

Disorders caused by damage to the temporal love
Aware of object but can't identify

121

Frontal lobe

Association areas involved with feeling and planning contribute to personality

122

Primary motor cortex

In frontal lobe
Neurons in this region control muscles in specific parts of the body

123

Parietal lobe

Association area attends to complex stimuli
Visual info to 3D

124

Primary somatosensory cortex

In parietal lobe
Receives touch and pressure information

125

Occipital lobe

Receives and processes visual info
Association areas make sense of visual world and translate visuals into language
Ex. Woman with damage can't see motion, just still images

126

Lateralization

Occurs mainly in one half of the brain
Ex. Language

127

T or F: language abilities are localized in the left hemisphere

True

128

Aphasia

Deficit in ability to use or understand words
Often from damage to left hemisphere

129

Broca's area

In frontal lobe
A language area
Essential for PRODUCTION of language
Patients with damage to this area can still understand speech

130

Wernicke's area

Located in temporal lobe
A language area
Essential to UNDERSTANDING language
Patients with damage to this area can produce fluent sounding gibberish

131

Learning

Modification of behavior by experience

132

Memory

Ability of nervous system to retain what it has learned and experienced

133

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

High frequency electrical stimulation is neuronal circuits makes them
More sensitive to later stimulation

134

Associative learning

Two unrelated stimuli linked to same response

135

Conditioned reflex

Example of associative learning
Pavlov
Ex. Dog salivation experiment

136

Observational learning

More complex
Watch another person exhibit behavior
Form and store a memory of that
Copy/use info

137

Declarative memory

I know that....
Memory of events/facts:people
Conscious recall and description

138

Procedural memory

Perform a task
Ride a bike

139

Immediate memory

RIGHT NOW almost photographic but lasts about 2 seconds

140

Short-term memory

Not as much info as immediate, but longer lasting

141

Long-term memory

Lasts the longest amount of time

142

True or False: sleepwalking occurs during REM sleep

False

143

true or false: the body is paralyzed during REM sleep

True

144

REM sleep

Stands for rapid eye movement
Body is paralyzed
Vivid dreams
Brain activity most similar to an awake brain

145

Non-REM sleep

Stages 1-4 of sleep
Majority of sleep is non REM (in adults)

146

Insular cortex (insula)

Part of forebrain
Integrates info from all over the body to create a sensation of how the body feels

147

Muscle spindles

Modified muscle fibers in the quadriceps that form stretch receptors that are inner cared by the neuron

148

Cerebrum

Dominant part of mammalian brain
Two hemispheres

149

Left and right cerebral hemispheres

Make up cerebrum
Cover outer parts of brain with the exception of cerebellum

150

Cerebral cortex

Outermost layer of cerebral cortex

151

Convolutions

Ridges that the cerebral cortex is folded into to maximize surface area

152

Association cortex

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher order information processing
Hard to define specific function because responsible for integration of information from many different senses and memory

153

Temporal lobe

Processes auditory info
Also visual processing
Association areas recognize, identify, and name objects

154

Agnosias

Disorders caused by damage to the temporal love
Aware of object but can't identify

155

Frontal lobe

Association areas involved with feeling and planning contribute to personality

156

Primary motor cortex

In frontal lobe
Neurons in this region control muscles in specific parts of the body

157

Parietal lobe

Association area attends to complex stimuli
Visual info to 3D

158

Primary somatosensory cortex

In parietal lobe
Receives touch and pressure information

159

Occipital lobe

Receives and processes visual info
Association areas make sense of visual world and translate visuals into language
Ex. Woman with damage can't see motion, just still images

160

Lateralization

Occurs mainly in one half of the brain
Ex. Language

161

T or F: language abilities are localized in the left hemisphere

True

162

Aphasia

Deficit in ability to use or understand words
Often from damage to left hemisphere

163

Broca's area

In frontal lobe
A language area
Essential for PRODUCTION of language
Patients with damage to this area can still understand speech

164

Wernicke's area

Located in temporal lobe
A language area
Essential to UNDERSTANDING language
Patients with damage to this area can produce fluent sounding gibberish

165

Learning

Modification of behavior by experience

166

Memory

Ability of nervous system to retain what it has learned and experienced

167

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

High frequency electrical stimulation is neuronal circuits makes them
More sensitive to later stimulation

168

Associative learning

Two unrelated stimuli linked to same response

169

Conditioned reflex

Example of associative learning
Pavlov
Ex. Dog salivation experiment

170

Observational learning

More complex
Watch another person exhibit behavior
Form and store a memory of that
Copy/use info

171

Declarative memory

I know that....
Memory of events/facts:people
Conscious recall and description

172

Procedural memory

Perform a task
Ride a bike

173

Immediate memory

RIGHT NOW almost photographic but lasts about 2 seconds

174

Short-term memory

Not as much info as immediate, but longer lasting

175

Long-term memory

Lasts the longest amount of time

176

True or False: sleepwalking occurs during REM sleep

False

177

true or false: the body is paralyzed during REM sleep

True

178

REM sleep

Stands for rapid eye movement
Body is paralyzed
Vivid dreams
Brain activity most similar to an awake brain

179

Non-REM sleep

Stages 1-4 of sleep
Majority of sleep is non REM (in adults)

180

Insular cortex (insula)

Part of forebrain
Integrates info from all over the body to create a sensation of how the body feels