Chapter 43: Populations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 43: Populations Deck (37):
1

population

individuals in a species that interact with one another within a given area at a particular time

2

Population density

a measure of abundance
number of individuals per unit of area or volume
usually first measure of abundance taken

3

population size

total number of individuals in a population
a measure of abundance
counting only practical for teeny populations

4

Geographic range

the region where species are found

5

Habitats

the particular kinds of environments where species can live

6

habitat patches

islands of suitable habitat separated by unsuitable habitat

7

BD model

N sub t + 1 = N sub t + B - D
n is population b is births from t to t+ 1, d = deaths in that time

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growth rate

rate of change of a population

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cohort

sample of individuals that scientists can keep track of over time

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per capita birth rate

the number of offspring that the average individual produces

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per capita death rate

the average individual's chance of dying

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per capita growth rate

b-d
where b is the per capita birth rate and d is the per capita death rate
represented by r

13

life history

the time course of growth and development, reproduction, and death during an average individual's life

14

life table

quantitative summary/ description of the life cycle and life sycle transitions of a species

15

survivorship

the fraction of individuals who survive from birth to different stages

16

fecundity

the average number of offspring an individual produces at each age/stage if they do survive

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Life expectancy

the age to which an average person survives

18

Resources

material, energy, and the time available to acquire them
can be used up

19

Physical conditions

organisms need physical conditions that they can tolerate
not consumed

20

principle of allocation

once an organism has acquired a unit of a resource, it can be used only for one function at a time
first priority is to maintain homeostasis

21

life-history tradeoffs

negative relationships among growth, reproduction, and survival
invest in growth early, cant invest in defense
invest in reproduction at the expense of longevity

22

Multipilicative growth

populations exhibit this
grow by constant multiples

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Additive growth

grow by constant numbers

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Doubling time

constant in multiplicative growth when the population added equals exactly the inital population

25

logistic growth

curves out with carrying capacity

26

density dependent

r is density dependent, changes as pop becomes more crowded

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equilibirum

r=0
population stops changing size and = K, or carrying capacity

28

subpopulation

make up a population
linked by dispersal of individuals among patches

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metapopulation

larger, regional population

30

BIDE model

the number of individuals in a population at some point in the future = the number now + the number that are born + the number that immigrate - the number that die - the number that emigrate

31

Neutralism

neither animal affected/neutral interaction
0 for both
wolves and lichen
so connected so this may not actually occur

32

Amensalism

one organism not affected, another negatively affected
fungus- penicillium
produces toxin that kills bacteria
bacteria hurt, fungus doesn't even know that it is there

33

Commensalism

One animal positively affected, one not affected
golden jackal follow tigers around and get scraps
tiger not affected

34

Competition

Both animals negatively affected
lion and cheetah--- same prey

35

Mutualism

both benefit
pollination
insects and flowers both benefit
food and dispersion of pollen

36

Predation or Parasitism

One animal benefits, another harms
Preying Mantis eating bumblebee
cowbird egg- lay its egg in another bird's nest
grasshopper mind control

37

invasive species

kudzu
kudzu stink bug that feeds on kudzu
humans need to be careful