Chapter 12- DNA and RNA Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 12- DNA and RNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12- DNA and RNA Deck (29):
1

What was the result ofGriffith’s experiment?

Scientists realized that since the ability to cause disease was inherited by the transformed bacteria’s offspring the transforming factor might be a gene

2

What did Avery discover

That DNA stores and transfers DNA from one generation to the next

3

What did Hershey and Chase work With in their famous experiment?

Bacteriophage

4

Who proved the DNA composition

Chargoff

5

What is DNA composed of

Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, and nucleic acids: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

6

Who produced an x-ray shadow image of DNA

Franklin

7

What two men were responsible for discovering the shape of DNA?
What did they call the shape?

Watson and Crick
Double Helix

8

What is DNA like I’m prokaryotic cells

In one continuous loop in the cytoplasm

9

What is chromatin

DNA when it’s all uncoiled

10

What are histones

The circular protein that DNA coils around.

11

When the DNA coils around the histones what is that structure called

Nucleosome

12

What is the function of DNA polymerase?

It acts like a pair of scissors that cuts the DNA in half. It also double checks and makes sure that the guanines match with The cytosines and the adenine match with the thymine

13

mRNA

Messenger RNA

14

What is mRNA’s job

It takes the mold of what the DNA gives it, then it leaves the nucleus, goes out into the cytoplasm, then it goes through the ribosomes

15

tRNA

Transfer RNA

16

What does tRNA do

Picks up amino acids and brings codon into ribosomes

17

Codon

Group of three base pairs

18

Two main parts of protein synthesis

Transcription
Translation

19

Polypeptide

A grouping of amino acids (protein)

20

A codon has how many nucleotides

3

21

3 nucleotides make an

Amino acid

22

Chains of amino acids

Proteins

23

What is an anticodon

From transfer RNA and matches to the codon on the mRNA

24

Point mutations

Created when one specific amino acid grouping is wrong in the sequence. (They occur at one point)

25

Frameshift mutations

The reading frame of the genetic message moves one codon space. They often destroy the functionality of the produced proteins

26

Chromosomal mutations

Change the location of the genes on the chromosomes

27

The four types of chromosomal mutations

1. Deletion; missing a chunk of a chromosome so it can’t do its job properly
2. Duplication; accidental duplication of DNA affects it’s ability to make protein etc
3. Inversion; things move to the other side of the chromosome
4. Translocation; something moves from one chromosome to another (screws up two chromosomes)

28

Cytogenetics

When people take cells from a baby or umbilical cord and sequence the chromosomes to check for defects

29

Polyploidy

The condition in which an organism has an extra set of chromosomes