Flashcards in Chapter 12- DNA and RNA Deck (29):
What was the result ofGriffith’s experiment?
Scientists realized that since the ability to cause disease was inherited by the transformed bacteria’s offspring the transforming factor might be a gene
What did Avery discover
That DNA stores and transfers DNA from one generation to the next
What did Hershey and Chase work With in their famous experiment?
Who proved the DNA composition
What is DNA composed of
Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, and nucleic acids: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
Who produced an x-ray shadow image of DNA
What two men were responsible for discovering the shape of DNA?
What did they call the shape?
Watson and Crick
What is DNA like I’m prokaryotic cells
In one continuous loop in the cytoplasm
What is chromatin
DNA when it’s all uncoiled
What are histones
The circular protein that DNA coils around.
When the DNA coils around the histones what is that structure called
What is the function of DNA polymerase?
It acts like a pair of scissors that cuts the DNA in half. It also double checks and makes sure that the guanines match with The cytosines and the adenine match with the thymine
What is mRNA’s job
It takes the mold of what the DNA gives it, then it leaves the nucleus, goes out into the cytoplasm, then it goes through the ribosomes
What does tRNA do
Picks up amino acids and brings codon into ribosomes
Group of three base pairs
Two main parts of protein synthesis
A grouping of amino acids (protein)
A codon has how many nucleotides
3 nucleotides make an
Chains of amino acids
What is an anticodon
From transfer RNA and matches to the codon on the mRNA
Created when one specific amino acid grouping is wrong in the sequence. (They occur at one point)
The reading frame of the genetic message moves one codon space. They often destroy the functionality of the produced proteins
Change the location of the genes on the chromosomes
The four types of chromosomal mutations
1. Deletion; missing a chunk of a chromosome so it can’t do its job properly
2. Duplication; accidental duplication of DNA affects it’s ability to make protein etc
3. Inversion; things move to the other side of the chromosome
4. Translocation; something moves from one chromosome to another (screws up two chromosomes)
When people take cells from a baby or umbilical cord and sequence the chromosomes to check for defects