Chapter 22.4, 22.5, And 23-Botany Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 22.4, 22.5, And 23-Botany > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22.4, 22.5, And 23-Botany Deck (59):
1

Two groups of seed plants

Gymnosperm
Angiosperm

2

Gymnosperm

Plants that bear cones that have seeds on the outside

3

The most common gymnosperms

Conifer

4

Angiosperm

Flowering plants (the flowers and the fruit protect the seed)

5

What do all seed plants have In Common

They both have seed coats to protect and keep the moisture inside
The both also have embryos in order for germination and a food supply in the seed or soil

6

Germination

The process in which the seed begins to grow

7

Two major subgroups of angiosperms

Monocots and dicots

8

What are three characteristics of monocots

Parallel venation
Fibrous roots
Flowers come in multiples of 3

9

3 characteristics of dicots

Branched venation
Big roots
Flowers in multiples of 4 and 5

10

When a seed germinates and the stem and root come out of it what is the root called and what is the stem called

Stem- plumule
Root-radical

11

Tropism

When a plant responds to its environment

12

What are some tropisms

Hydrotropism
Chemotropism
Phototropism
Thigmotrotropism
Geotropism

13

Woody plants

Plants with wood and a protein called lignin

14

Herbaceous plants

Plants with a soft stem

15

Annual, biennial, and perennial plants

Annual- 1 growing season don’t come up again
Biennial- 2 growing season,dormant in winter
Perennial- come back every year

16

Three principle organs of seed plants

Roots
Stems
Leaves

17

Stoma

Pores on the bottom of a leaf that open and close to control water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide

18

Three main tissue types

Dermal
Vascular
Ground

19

Cuticle

Waxy coating on the dermal tissue to help waterproof it

20

Trichombs

Root hairs that give the leaves the fuzzy feel that increases the surface area on roots. the root uses to absorb moisture all plants have them

21

Components of vascular tissue and what they do

Made up of xylem and phloem. The xylem brings moisture and sugar up the stem. The phloem brings carbs down
Tracheids are the pathways

22

What are the types of cells in ground tissue

Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma

23

Parenchyma

Make and store food

24

Collenchyma

Give structural support for plants with lignin

25

Sclerenchyma

Give Rigid toughness like armored protection and

26

Meristematic tissue

For growth and repair. The only plant tissue that is growing and going through mitosis

27

The apical meristem

The tip of the plant root or stem that is an area of rapid growth

28

Differentiation

Is when meristematic tissue make cells and they differentiate to what they become (vascular, ground, dermal)

29

Cork

Bark under the meristem

30

Zone of elongation

Stretches the root tip and pushes it down

31

Zone of maturation

The process of cells becoming what they were made for

32

Endodermis

What completely enclosed the roots vascular subsystem in a region called the vascular cylinder

33

The casparian strips

Seal the inner portion of where the phloem and the xylem are. They prevent water from flowing back into the dirt

34

Pith

Cells inside the vascular bundles of dicots

35

Primary growth

Growth (active) progress for this year

36

Bud scars

On stem show the previous year growths

37

Secondary growth

When stems increase in width

38

Cambium

Layer of meristematic tissue

39

Vascular cambium

Layer dividing the xylem the phloem

40

Cork cambium

Layer of tissue right under the bark where tree grows

41

Heartwood

Darker, inner wood. Old nonfunctioning xylem that moves to center because fluid can’t flow through it

42

Sapwood

Wood on the outer layer with liquids still flowing in it

43

Bark

Dead phloem, cambium, and cork tissue it protects against insects

44

Stems are also

Tubers
Bulbs
Rhizomes
Corms

45

The petiole

Connects leaves to the stem

46

Lenticle

The curly tissue that is involved in the breaking of fruit off from the vine, break occurs when the fruit is ripe as possible

47

The cuticle

Waxy layer that waterproofs leaves

48

Epidermis

The layer the cuticle covers

49

The columnar or palisade mesophyll

Vertical columns of cells where chloroplasts are and photosynthesis occurs

50

Spongy mesophyll

Looks like a sponge, in its spaces has exchange, photosynthesis and water coming in and out happens

51

Stoma

Aren’t structures, porelike openings on the bottom of he leaf. Allows gas in and out as well as water vapor

52

Guard cells

Next to stoma, and close them in case of a drought. These are turgid (filled with water) and when they wilt they close the stoma

53

Transpiration

The moving of moisture in and out of plant leaves

54

Adaptions of leaves

Pitcher plants; attracts insects and eat them as a source of nitrogen, cactus and pine needles and rock plants

55

The combination of these three things provide enough force to move water through the xylem of even the tallest plant

Root pressure
Capillary action
Transpiration

56

What allows for capillary action

The property of the electrical attraction of adhesion

57

Capillary action

The tendency of water to rise within a thin tube

58

Transpirational pull

The tube of water is evaporating so as it pulls it helps to bring the water up

59

The pressure flow hypothesis

Sugar-rich fluids in phloem move down from leaves. The water from the xylem moves to the phloem to even out the concentration. This creates pressure in the phloem that helps push it down