Chapter 7- Cell Structure and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7- Cell Structure and Function Deck (52):
1

Who created the first microscope?

Robert Hooke

2

Why did Robert Hooke name cells cells

Because they reminded him of the rooms monks stayed in called cells

3

Who came up with a better microscope than Hooke and used it to discover little organisms

Leowenhoek

4

Century that was the beginning of modern science

1800s

5

What are the three components of the cell theory?

1. All living things are composed of cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
3. New cells are produced from existing cells

6

All cells have these four systems

Reproductive
Active transport
Respiration
Digestive

7

What does the active transport system do in a cell?

It’s what goes out and brings things into the cell

8

What is the maximum magnification of a light microscope and what does that allow u to see

1000x
Bacteria but not viruses

9

When we’re electron microscopes created

1930s

10

Explain electron microscopes
(What can u see)

The allow us to see structure and anatomy but not physiology (how they function) because in order to look at something the electrons kill it.
A stream of electrons produce a shadow image and allow us to see viruses and some molecules

11

Two types of electron microscopes

Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and transmission electron microscopes (TEM)

12

What do scanning tunneling microscopes allow us to see

All molecules

13

Two big groups of cells

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

14

What are prokaryotes

Cells without a nucleus. Their dna is spread out in their cytoplasm. Most bacteria is this

15

Eukaryotes

Cells that have a nucleus. Includes all multicellular organisms

16

Organelles

A structure with a function within a cell “little organs”

17

99%of cells I’m out body are..

Eukaryotes

18

Cell wall

A waterproof protein that helps maintain homeostasis

19

What kind of cell has a cell wall

Plant

20

Why are plant cells producers

Bc they have chloroplasts which produce food by photosynthesis

21

What is the nuclear membrane/envelope

The outside layer of the nucleus. Has nuclear pores that let things in and out of the nucleus.dna is here

22

Where are ribosomes made

On the nucleolus

23

Location of protein synthesis

Ribosomes

24

What dissolves when the cel goes into reproduction

Nuclear membrane

25

What is cytoplasm

Everything in the membrane not including the nucleus

26

What does the endoplasmic reticulum do

Takes and distributes ribosomes

27

Where are proteins assembled (protein synthesis occurs)

Inside ribosomes

28

What is the endoplasmic reticulum

Membranes folded into each other that become pathways for the proteins to move

29

Two types of endoplasmic reticulum

Smooth ER
Rough ER

30

Why is rough er rough

Bc ribosomes are on the surface and make it bumpy

31

What does smooth ER do

It helps to construct lipid based molecules that are used to make all membranes in a cell. Also where cells can get rid of pollutants and toxins

32

What is it called when the liver gets replaced by fatty and scar tissue to combat the need of cells that the alcohol killed in the liver

Cirrhosis

33

What does the Golgi apparatus do

Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins

34

What do lysosomes do

Break invaders, poison, and waste products down chemically

35

What are vacuoles used for

They’re chambers used for storage in the cell

36

The powerhouse of the cell and why

Mitochondria bc that’s where the cell is able to gather energy

37

What are chloroplasts

Found only in plant cells. Have chlorophyll where photosynthesis occurs. Take solar energy and uses it to hook molecules together and form sugars

38

What do cytoskeleton do and what cells are they found in

Eukaryotic cells, look like straws that give shape and structure to the cellade of microfilaments and microtubules

39

Diffusion

When particles move from a high concentration to a low concentration

40

Osmosis

Diffusion across a membrane all cells depend on it to bring moisture into them

41

Three things all cells have in common

Cell membranes
Cytoplasm
DNA

42

Cells that need more energy have more _____________

Mitochondria

43

What do flagella do

Help cells move

44

What are lipids and the two types of them

Groups of chemicals containing fats and oils
Phospholipids and glycolipids

45

What are cell walls made of

Sugar plants make called cellulose

46

Diffusion requires no

Energy

47

What is equilibrium

When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout the system

48

What is facilitated diffusion

Allows certain things to diffuse across the membrane with the help of proteins

49

Crenation

When a cell shrinks to match the concentration

50

What are white blood cells and the two groups

Leukocytes
Two groups: granulocytes which injest bacterial infections, lymphocytes which attack viruses

51

What does endemic mean

Very common

52

What are the lvls of organization in a multicellular organism

Individual cells- tissues-organs-organ systems