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The study of fungi

Mycology

1

Fungi nutritional type

Chemoheterotroph

2

Fungi multicellularity

All except yeast

3

Fungi cellular arrangement

Unicellular, filamentous, fleshy

4

Fungi acquisition method

Absorptive

5

Fungi characteristic features

Sexual and asexual spores

6

Fungi cell type

Eukaryotic

7

Bacteria cell type

Prokaryotic

8

Fungi cell membrane

Sterols present

9

Bacteria cell membrane

Sterols absent except in mycoplasma

10

Fungi cell wall

Glucans, chitin, mannans

No peptidoglycan

11

Bacteria cell wall

Peptidoglycan

12

Fungi spores

Asexual
Sexual

13

Bacteria spores

Spores are not used for reproduction
Some asexual spores

14

Fungi metabolism

Limited to heterotrophic
Facultatively anaerobic

15

Bacteria metabolism

Heterotrophic and autotrophic
Aerobic, anaerobic
Facultatively anaerobic

16

Main body of a mold

Thallus

17

Mold thallus is made of what

Hyphae

18

Mass of hyphae

Mycelium

19

In terms of unicellular fungi, fission yeast divide ______

Symmetrically

20

In terms of unicellular fungi, budding yeasts divide ______

Asymmetrically

21

Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeast like at _____ and mold like at _____

37C; 25C

22

Name the three phase of sexual reproduction

Plasmogamy
Karyogamy
Meiosis

23

Haploid donor cell nucleus(+) penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell(-)

Plasmogamy

24

+ and - nuclei fuse

Karyogamy

25

Diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei (sexual spores)

Meiosis

26

Fusion of haploid cells produces one ______

Zygospore

27

Formed in a sac (ascus)

Ascospore

28

Formed externally on a pedestal or basidium

Basidiospore (mushroom)

29

Conjugation fungi
Coenocytic
Produces sporangiospores(asexual)
Produce zygospores(sexual)
Rhizopus, Mucor

Zygmycota

30

No hyphae
No mitochondria
Intercellular parasites
Encephalitozoon intestinalis

Mircrosporidia

31

Encephalitozoon intestinalis

Intracellular parasites

32

Sac fungi
Septate
Teleomorphic fungi
Ascospores and frequently conidiospores

Ascomycota

33

Produce sexual and asexual spores

Ascomycota
Teleomorphic fungi

34

Aspergillus
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Microsporum
Trichophyton

Ascomycota
Ascospore and frequently conidiospores

35

Produce asexual spores only

Anamorphs

36

Penicillium
Sporothrix
Stachybotrys, coccidioides, pneumocystis
Candida albicans

Anamorphs

37

Club fungi
Septate
Produce basidiospores and sometimes conidiospores

Basidiomycota

38

Crytococcus neoformans

Basidiomycota

39

Trichoderma

Cellulase

40

Taxomyces

Taxol

41

Biocontrol

Entomophaga

42

Kills fungi

Coniothyrium minitans

43

Kills termites

Paecilomyces

44

Bread, wine, HBV vaccine

Saccharomyces

45

Biocontrol

Entomophaga

46

Fungal diseases are also called

Mycoses

47

Fungal disease deep within body

Systemic mycoses

48

Beneath the skin

Subcutaneous mycoses

49

Affect hair, skin, nails

Cutaneous mycoses

50

Localized (like hair shafts)

Superficial mycoses

51

Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi

Opportunistic mycoses

52

Mutualistic combination of an alga and fungus

Lichens

53

Alga produces and secretes carbohydrates while the fungus provides holdfast

Lichens

55

Economic effect of lichens

Dyes
Anti microbial
Litmus

56

nutritional type of algae

photoautotroph

57

multicellularity of algae

some

58

cellular arrangement of algae

unicellular, colonial, filamentous, tissues

59

food acquisition method of algae

diffusion

60

characteristic features of algae

pigments

61

brown algae
kelp
stinks

phaeophyta

62

cellulose and alginic cell walls
multicellular
chlorophyll a and c
xanthophylls

phaeophyta

63

harvested for algin
store carbohydrates

phaeophyta

64

red algae
cellulose cell walls
most are multicellular

rhodophyta

65

chlorophyll a and d
phycobiliproteins

rhodophyta

66

store glucose polymer
harvested for agar and carrageenan

rhodophyta

67

pectin and silicia cell walls

diatoms

68

carotene
xanthophylls

diatoms

69

store oil
produce domoic acid

diatoms

70

cellulose in plasma membrane

dinoflagellates

71

unicellular
chlorophyll a and c
carotene
xanthins

dinoflagellates

72

store starch

dinoflagellates

73

some are symbionts in marine animals

dinoflagellates

74

neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning

dinoflagellates

75

cellulose cell walls
multicellular
chemoheterotrophis

oomycota

76

produces zoospores

oomycota

77

decomposers and plant parasites

oomycota

78

responsible for irish potato blight

phytophthora infestation

79

infects eucalyptus

P. cinnamoni

80

causes sudden oak death

P. ramorum

81

water molds

oomycota

82

nutrition type of protozoa

chemoheterotroph

83

multicellularity of protozoa

none

84

cellular arrangement of protozoa

unicellular

85

food acquisition of protozoa

absorptive, ingestive

86

kingdom of protozoa

various

87

characteristic features of protozoa

motility, some form cysts

88

vegetative form of protozoa

trophozoite

89

asexual reproduction of protozoa is by

fission, budding, schizogony

90

sexual reproduction of protozoa is done by

conjugation

91

some protozoa produce

cysts

92

move by pseudopods
entamoeba
acanthamoeba

amebae

93

hemlinths kingdom

animalia

94

nutritional type of helminths

chemoheterotroph

95

multicellularity of helminth

all

96

cellular arrangement of helminth

tissues and organs

97

food acquisition of helminth

ingestive, absorptive

98

characteristic features of helminths

elaborate life cycles

99

flatworms

phylum:platyhelminths

100

flukes

class: trematodes
Phylum: platyhelminthes

101

tapeworms

class:cestodes
phylum: platyhelminthes

102

roundworms

phylum: nematoda

103

characteristics of helminths (4)

reduced locomotion
reduced digestive system
reduced nervous system
complex reproduction

104

monoecious

hemaphrodictic

105

male and female reproductive systems in one animal

monoecious

106

separate female and male

dioecious

107

life cyle of helminths

egg, larva, adult

108

may transmit disease

arthropods as vectors

109

classification of arthropods

kingdom: animalia
phylum: arthropoda

110

exoskeleton and jointed legs

arthropoda

111

lice, flea, mosquitos

class: insecta (6 legs)
phylum: arthropoda
kingdom: animalia

112

mites and ticks

class: arachnida (8 legs)
phylum: arthropoda
kingdom: arthropoda

113

how can arthropods serve as vectors

mechanically
biologically
definitive host