Chapter 5- Microbe Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5- Microbe Metabolism Deck (59):
0

The sum of the chemical elections in an organism

Metabolism

1

Metabolism=

Catabolism+anabolism

2

Provides energy and building blocks for anabolism

Catabolism

3

Uses energy and building looks to bills large molecules

Anabolism

4

The most common carb

Glucose

5

Catabolism releases energy by

Oxidation of molecules

6

Anabolism uses energy to

Synthesize macromolecules that make up the cell

7

Sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions determine by enzymes

Metabolic pathway

8

What are enzymes

Proteins that do work

9

Enzymes lower the energy of

Activation

10

Specific for a chemical reaction but not used up in that reaction

Biological catalysts

11

Apoenzyme

Protein

12

Cofactors

Non protein component (vitamin, mineral, metal ion)

13

Holoenzyme=

Apoenzyme+ cofactors

14

Substrate=

Apoenzyme+coenzyme

15

Where the substrate binds to the enzyme

Active site

16

Enzymes end in

Ase

17

Enzyme used to make ATP

ATPase

18

ATP

-stores energy in phosphate bonds
-energy stored in phosphate bonds
-nearly universal energy molecule for living organisms

19

Factors influencing enzyme activity

Temp, pH, substrate concentration, inhibitors

20

Temp and pH _____ proteins

Denature-when heated=breaks down

21

Inhibitor that binds to active site

Competitive inhibition

22

Inhibitor that binds to a site other than active site

Non competitive inhibition

23

Site where the non competitive inhibition binds

Allosteric site

24

Enzymatic pathways require control so cells may regulate enzyme activity. Control is achieved via

Feedback inhibition

25

Removal of electrons

Oxidation

26

Gain of electrons

Reduction

27

An oxidation reaction paired with a reduction reaction

Redox reaction

28

The breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy

Carbohydrate catabolism

29

Breakdown of glucose from 6 carbon to 3 carbon

Glycolysis

30

Further breakdown or glycolysis product

Krebs

31

Oxidation reduction chain to produce ATP

Electron transport chain

32

True false: fermentation goes to Krebs

False

33

True false: respiration goes to Krebs

True

34

The oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid produces ATP and NADH

Glycolysis

35

4 ATP produced, 2 ATP used, 2 net ATP are produced, 2 NADH produced, 2 pyruvic acid

Glycolysis

36

Oxidation of molecules liberates electrons for an electron transport chain

Cellular respiration

37

ATP is generated by oxidative phosphorylation

Cellular respiration

38

Oxidation of acetyl CoA produces NADH and FADH2

Krebs cycle

39

NADH and FADH2 deliver electrons and hydrogen ions to the ETC

Electron transport chain

40

Electrons are transferred between the chain molecules by a series of oxidation reduction steps

ETC

41

This cases hydrogen ions to move across a membrane and build up a high concentration on one side

ETC

42

Hydrogen ions move down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase, which drives synthesis of ATP when O2 is available

ETC

43

ETC site in eukaryotic cell

Inner mitochondrial membrane

44

ETC site in prokaryotic cell

Plasma membrane

45

The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular O2

Aerobic respiration

46

The final electron acceptor in ETC is not O2

Anaerobic respiration

47

Why does anaerobic respiration yield less energy than aerobic respiration?

Because only part of the Krebs cycle operates under anaerobic conditions

48

Inorganic electron acceptor
No O2 require

Anaerobic respiration

49

Energy produced from a complete oxidation of one glucose using aerobic respiration

Carbohydrate catabolism

50

Any spoilage of food by microorganisms

Fermentation

51

Any process that produced alcoholic beverages or acidic dairy products

Fermentation

52

Any large scale microbial process occurring with or without air

Fermentation

53

Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules
Does no require O2
Does not use Krebs or ETC

Fermentation.

54

Uses organic molecule as final electron acceptor

Fermentation

55

Conversion of light energy to chemical energy

Photosynthesis

56

Carbon fixation and light independent (dark) reaction

Synthesis

57

Fixing carbon into organic molecules

Synthesis

58

Calvin benson cycle

Light independent/ dark reaction