Chapter 20- Antimicrobial Growth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20- Antimicrobial Growth Deck (70):
1

the use of chemical drugs to treat a disease

chemotherapy

2

interfere with the growth of microbes within a host

antimicrobial drugs

3

a substance produced by a microbe that, in small amounts, inhibits another microbe

antibiotic

4

killing harmful microbes without damaging the host

selective toxicity

5

affect a broad range of Gram positive and Gram negative

broad spectrum

6

more selective or limited range

narrow spectrum

7

drugs are selected with limited damage to _____ microbota

normal

8

most common bacteria

terracycline

9

kills microbes directly

bactericidal

10

prevent microbes from growing

bacteriostatic

11

action of anitmicrobial drugs

-inhibition of cell wall synthesis
-inhibition of protein synthesis
-inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription
-injury of plasma membrane
-inhibition of essential metabolite synthesis

12

penicillins, cephalosporins, bacitracin, vancomycin

inhibition of cell wall synthesis

13

chloramphenicol, erythryomycin, tetracyclines, streptomycin

inhibition of protein synthesis

14

quinolones, rifampin

inhibition of nucleic acid replication and transcription

15

sulfanimide, trimethoprim

inhibition of essential metabolite synthesis

16

ploymyxin B

injury to plasma membrane

17

-identified by beta-iactam ring
-susceptible to penicillinase

natural penicillin

18

penicillin g

requires injection

19

penicillin v

can be taken orally

20

identified by beta iactam ring
more resistant to penicillinase

semisynthetic penicillin

21

narrow spectrum
only gram positive
resistant to penicillins

oxacillin

22

many gram negatives
extended spectrum

ampicillin

23

microbes resistant to penicillin have ______ activity that breaks down beta iactam ring structure, making the drug useless.

penicillianse

24

narrow spectrum
act against gram positive bacteria

first generation cephalosporins

25

extended spectrum
includes gramnegative bacteria

second generation cephalosporins

26

includes pseudomonads
injected

third generation cephalosporins

27

oral

fourth generation cephalosporins

28

topical application
against gram positives

polypeptide antibiotics-bacitracin

29

glycopeptide
important last line against antibiotic resistant S. aureus

polypeptide antibiotics-vancomycin

30

inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
also effective against mycobacterium

antimycobacterial antibiotics-isoniazid

31

inhibits incorporation of mycolic acid

antimycobacterial antibiotics- ethambutol

32

broad spectrum
binds 50s subunit
inhibits peptide bond formation

chloraphenicol

33

– Streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin
-Broad spectrum
– Change shape of 30S subunit, preventing protein synthesis from
bacterial ribosome

Aminoglycosides

34

-broad spectrum
-Interfere with tRNA attachment, preventing protein
synthesis from bacterial ribosome

tetracyclines

35

-Gram-positives
-Bind 50S subunit; inhibit translation

Streptogramins

36

– Structural changes in the membrane, followed by
arrest of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein
– MRSA

Lipopeptides

37

-topical
-combined with bacitracin and neomycin in
over-the-counter preparation

Polymyxin B

38

– Inhibits RNA synthesis
– Antituberculosis

Rifamycin

39

– Nalidixic acid: urinary infections
– Ciprofloxacin
– Inhibit DNA gyrase
– Urinary tract infections

Quinolones and fluoroquinolones

40

-Inhibit folic acid synthesis
-Broad spectrum

Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)

41

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
– Miconazole
– Triazole

antifungal drugs

42

-Targets Ergosterol (a component of the cell
wall)
-Inhibits other glycoproteins in the cell wall

antifungal drugs

43

– Indinavir: HIV
– Interferes with protein synthesis

antiviral drugs-enzyme inhibitors-protease inhibitors

44

– HIV

antiviral drugs-enzyme inhibitors-integrase inhibitors

45

Amantadine: influenza

antiviral drugs-entry inhibitors-

46

-Zanamivir: influenza
– Block CCR5: HIV

antiviral drugs-entry inhibitors-fusion inhibitors

47

Prevent spread of viruses to new cells
– Alpha interferon: Viral hepatitis

antiviral drugs-interferons

48

promotes interferon production

Imiquimod

49

– Inhibits DNA synthesis
• Malaria

Chloroquine-antiprotozoan drugs

50

Kills Plasmodium sporozoites

antiprotozoan drugs-artemisin

51

Interferes with anaerobic metabolism
• Trichomonas and Giardia

antiprotozoan drugs-metronidazole

52

Interferes with anaerobic metabolism
• Trichomonas and Giardia

Antihelminthic Drugs-niclosamide

53

Alters membrane permeability
-Flatworms

Antihelminthic Drugs- Praziquantel

54

Interfere with nutrient absorption
 Intestinal roundworms

Antihelminthic Drugs- Mebendazole and albendazole

55

 Paralysis of helminths
 Intestinal roundworms

Antihelminthic Drugs- ivermectin

56

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics

-block entry
-inactivation by enzymes
-alteration of target molecule
-efflux of antibiotic

57

• A variety of mutations can lead to

antibiotic resistance

58

Resistance genes are often on _____ or ________ that can be transferred between
bacteria

plasmids, transposons

59

Misuse of antibiotics selects for

resistance
mutants

60

Using outdated or weakened antibiotics

misuse of antibiotics

61

– Using antibiotics for the common cold and other
inappropriate conditions

misuse of antibiotics

62

Using antibiotics in animal feed

misuse of antibiotics

63

– Failing to complete the prescribed regimen
OR
using someone's leftover prescription

misuse of antibiotics

64

occurs when the effect of two
drugs together is greater than the effect of
either alone

synergism

65

occurs when the effect of two
drugs together is less than the effect of either
alone

antagonism

66

A growth of cells of one specific microorganisms

Pure culture

67

A medium may be a ____ or _____

Solid or liquid

68

Solid media has

Agar

69

Must be heated to boiling to dissolve but will solidify at 40C

Agar

70

Originating or taking place in a hospital
Acquired in a hospital, especially in reference to an infection

Nosocomial Infection