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Flashcards in chapter 13 Deck (25):

schedule of reinforcement

is a rule that describes a contingency of reinforcement, those environmental arrangements that determine conditions by which behaviors will produce reinforcement


intermittent schedule of reinforcement (INT)

some, but not all occurrences of the behaviors are reinforced.


continuous reinforcement

provides reinforcement for each occurrence of Behavior


Fixed Ratio (FR)

requires the completion of a number of responses to produce a reinforcer


postreinforcement pause

follows reinforcement (the participant does not respond for a period of time following reinforcemnet.
size of ratio influences-
larger ratio- long pauses
small ratio- short pauses


variable ratio (VR)

schedule of reinforcement requires the completion of variable number of responses to produce a reinforcer


fixed interval (FI)

schedule of reinforcement provides for the first response following a fixed duration of time


variable interval (VI)

schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time


limited hold

when added to an interval schedule, reinforcement remains available for a finite time following the elapse of the FI or VI interval. participant will miss the opportunity for reinfrocement if a targeted response does not occur within the time limit.


scheduling thinning

gradually increasing the response ratio or duration of time interval.
-teachers often use instructions to clearly communicate the schedules of reinforcement
-rules, directions, and signs


ratio strain

results from abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedule


differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH)

delivery of the reinforcer is contingent on responses occurring at a rate higher than some predetermined criterion.


differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL)

delivery of the reinforcer is contingent on responses occurring at a rate lower than a predetermined criterion


differential reinforcements of dimishing rates (DRD)

schedule provides reinforcement at the end of a predetermined time interval when the number of response is less than a criterion that is gradually decreased across time intervals based on individuals performance


progressive schedule of reinforcement

systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the participants behavior


compound schedule

combining elements of continuous reinforcment, and intermittent schedules, differential reinforcement of various rates (DRH, DRL) and extinction.


concurrent schedule

occurs when:
-2 or more contingencies of reinforcement
-operate independently and simultaneously for 2 or more behaviors


matching law

- concurrent schedule
rate of responding typically is proportional to the rate of reinforcement received from each choice alternative


multiple schedule

presents 2 or more basic schedules of reinforcement in an alternating, usually random, sequence. occur successive and independently


chained schedule

2 or more schedule requirements that occur successively and have a discriminative stimulus correlated with each independent schedule.
-always occur in specifc order
-BX may be the same for all elements
- conditioned reinforcement is the SD for the next element


mixed schedule

identical to multiple schedules, except that has no discriminative stimuli correlated with the independent schedules


tandem schedule

identical to chained schedule except does not have a discriminative stimulus with the elements in the chain


alternative schedule

provides reinforcement whenever the requirement of either a ratio or interval schedule is met regardless of which on was met first.


conjunctive schedule

in effect whenever reinforcement follows the completion of response requirements for both a ratio and an interval schedule of reinforcement.


adjunctive behavior

normal time filling behaviors (doodling, smoking, idle talking, drinking)
schedule induced behaviors- when the frequency of these behaviors increases as a side effect of other behaviors maintained by a schedule of reinforcement.