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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (47):
1

History of reinforcement

repertoire of behaviors each person brings to any situation has been selected, shaped and maintained by...

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contingent

dependency of a particular consequences on the occurrence of behavior.

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contingency

various types of temporal of functional relations between behavior and antecedent and consequent variables.

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3 term contingency

antecedent- behavior- consequence

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discriminative stimulus

a stimulus that the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced. (e.g. reinforced is available)

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Stimulus control

when a discriminated operant occurs at a higher frequency in the presence of a given stimulus than it does in the absence of that stimulus

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discriminated operant

a behavior that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than it does under others

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conditioned punisher (CP)

stimulus events or conditions that are presented or that occur just before or simultaneously with the occurrence of other punishers may acquire the ability to punish on their own consequence

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behavior

portion of an organism's interaction with its environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and that results in a measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment

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unconditioned punisher

stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without prior pairing with any other form of punishment

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conditioned reinforcer (CR)

stimulus events or conditions that are presented or that occur just before or simulations with the occurrence of other reinforcers may acquire the ability to reinforce behavior when they later occur on their own consequences.

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Satiation

a decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed as the result of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior (e.g. procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer.

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deprivation

the state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer.
(e.g. procedure of increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer.

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Motivating operations

an environmental variable that-alters (increases or decreases) the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus
-alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object or event.

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response

action of an organisms effector (organ at the end of an efferent nerve fiber that is specilized for altering it's envirnment)

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response class

group of responses with the same function (effect on environment)

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repertoire

all behaviors a person can do set or collection of knowledge and skills

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environment

everything except the moving parts of an organism involved in the behavior

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stimulus class

any group of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements in one or more dimensions.

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stimulus

an energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells

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antecedent

environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest

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consequence

stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest

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reflex

stimulus- response relation, part of organism genetic endowment

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respondent behavior

BX that is elicited by antecedent stimuli. induced or brought out by a stimulus that precedes the behavior, nothing else is required for the response to occur.

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habituation

process of gradually diminishing response strength

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respondent conditioning

new stimuli can acquire that ability to elicit respondents.
NS+US=UR
NS+US=UR
US=UR
CS=CR

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Stimulus= stimulus pairing

pairing a neutral stimuli with an unconditioned stimuli

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unconditioned stimulus (US)

reflex=response

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neutral stimulus (NS)

stimulus that dies not elicit a reflex response

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conditioned stimulus (CR)

stimulus created after stim-stim pairing creates a condiitioned reflex

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respondent extinction

procedure of repeatedly presented a CS without the US until the CS is no longer elicits the conditioned response

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higher order conditoning

stimulus-stimulus pairing of an NS with a CS

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operant behavior

any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences.

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selection by consequences

all forms of life evolve as a result of selection with respect to function

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ontogency

individual organism

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phylogency

history of species

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operant conditioning

process and selective effects of consequences on behavior.

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reinforcer

increase of response frequency

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punisher

decrease of response frequency

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automaticity of reinforcement

behavior is modified by its consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware s/he is being reinforced.

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reinforcement

if a bx is followed closely in time by a stimulus event and as a result the future frequency of that type of BX increases in similar conditions.

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positive reinforcement

a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and results in the behavior occurring more often in the future

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negative reinforcement

frequency of behavior increases because past responses resulted in the removal or termination of a stimulus.

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aversive stimulus

stimulus conditions whose termination functioned as reinforcement.

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extinction

when reinforcement is withheld, the frequency of behavior will gradually decrease to pre-reinforcement levels or cease occur altogether

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punishment

when a behavior is followed by a stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar situations

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unconditioned reinforcer (UR)

a stimulus change that can increase the future frequency of behavior without prior pairing with any form of reinforcement.