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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (14):

positive reinforcement

occurs when a response is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus and as a result, similar responses occur more frequently in the future.


automatic reinforcement

behavior produces own reinforcement independent of the mediation of others


unconditioned reinforcer

stimulus change that functions as reinforcement even though the learner has had no particular learning history


conditioned reinforcer

previously neutral stimulus change that has acquired the capability to function as a reinforcer through stimulus-stimulus pairing


generalized conditioned reinforcer

a conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers does not depend on an EO


concurrent schedule of reinforcement

2 or more contingencies of reinforcement operate independently and simultaneously for 2 or more behaviors


progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement

the response requirement for reinforcement are increased systematically over time independent of the participants behavior


multiple schedule of reinforcement

2 or more component schedules of reinforcement for a single response with only one component schedule in effect. an SD signals that presence of each schedule.


Premack principle

making the opportunity to engage in a BX that occurs at a relatively high free operant rate contingent on the occurrence of a low frequency BX.


response deprivation hypothesis

a model for predicting whether access to one BX will function as reinforcement for another BX based on the relative baseline rates at which each BX occurs


stimulus preference assessment

variety of procedures used to determine:
the stimuli that a person prefers
the relative preference value of those stimuli
the conditions under which those preference values change


free operant observation

contrived- researcher palnts possible reinforcer around area
naturalistic- everyday environment.


trial based methods

single stimulus- stimulus presented, persons reaction is noted
paired stimuli- (forced choices) records which of 2 choices person chooses
multiple stimuli- person chooses from an array of 3 or more stimuli


reinforcer assessment

refers to a variety of direct, data based methods use to present 1 or more simuli contingent on a target response and then measuring the future effects on the rate of responding