Flashcards in chapter 5 Deck (25):

1

## validity

### measurement has____ when it yields data that are directly relevant to the phenomenon measured and the reason for measureing

2

## accuracy

### to the extent to which the observed value matches the true state

3

## observed value

### the quantitative label produced by measuring an event

4

## true value

### a measure obtained by procedures that are independent of and different from the procedures that produced the data. Taken all possible efforts to make sure errors are avoided or removed.

5

## measurement bias

###
nonrandom measurement error

-error in measurement that is likely to be in one direction

6

## reliablility

### measurement procedure yields the same value when brought into repeated contact then the same state of nature

7

## direct measurement

### occurs when the phenomenon that is the focus of the experiment in the same as the phenomenon being measured

8

## indirect measurement

### occurs when what is actually measured is in some way different from the target BX of interest

9

## continuous measurement

### measurement conducted in a manner such that all instances of the response class of interest are detected during an observation

10

## discontinous measurement

### any form of measurement in which some instances of the response class of interest may not be detected

11

## observer drift

### observes alter, unknowingly the way they apply a measurement system

12

## naive observer

### a trained observer who is unaware of the study's purpose and/or the experimental conditions in effect during or given phase or observation period

13

## observer reactivity

### measurement error resulting from an observers awareness that others are evaluating the data he reports.

14

## calibration

### when measurement error is consistent in direction and value, the data can be adjusted to compensate for the error

15

## interobserver agreement (IOA)

### refers to the degree to which 2 or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events.

16

## believability

### consumers judge that the data is trustworthy and deserving of interpretation

17

## total count IOA

### expressed by percentage of agreement between the total number of responses recorded by 2 observers and is calculated by dividing the smaller of the counts by the larger count and multiply by 100.

18

## mean count- per- interval IOA

### look up formula

19

## exact count per interval

###
the percentage of total intervals in which 2 observers recorded the same count

look up formula

20

## trial by trial IOA

###
more conservative and meaningful

number of trials (items) agreement

______________________

total number of trials (itmes)= X 100

21

## total duration IOA

###
computed by dividing the shorter of the 2 durations reported by the observers by the longer duration + ,multiply by 100

shorter

_______

longer durations x 100=

22

## mean duration per occurrence IOA

###
conservative and usually more meaningful assessment of IOA

look up formula

23

## interval by interval IOA

###
primary observer's record for each interval is matched to the secondary observers record for the same interval

number of interval agreed

______________________

# of intervals agree =# of intervals disagreed x 100

24

## scored interval IOA

### only intervals in which either or both observers recorded the occurrence of the target behavior are used when calculating

25