Chapter 13 - Herbs and other Natural Products Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Herbs and other Natural Products Deck (46)
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1

Spices in cuisine may have...

... lessened the threat from pathogens.

2

How do shamans use herbs?

Using their special gifts, they are about to use herbs to affect people's spirit.

3

Why did people start to loose faith in the medicines they had between the 1300s-1600s?

Their existing medicines failed to deal with epidemics of the plague.

4

What was the time period between the 15th-17th centuries called?

The great age of herbals.

5

What types of schools might teach students about herbal medicines?

Naturopathic schools, TCM schools, and herbalist schools.

6

Examples of herbal medicines that have been banned in some jurisdictions due to reported adverse effects.

Ephedra and Kava.

7

Who supplies information about the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines to Health Canada?

The applicant (the manufacturer).

8

What are the two things that herbalists believe combinations of compounds do?

Increase effects and dilute toxicity.

9

Most medicinally-used plant compounds are ___.

Secondary compounds.

10

Can herbal medicines be tested via RCTs?

Yes, they are well suited to RCT testing.

11

How do secondary compounds deter plant-eating animals?

Some don't taste good and some interfere with some aspect of an animals metabolism.

12

How many of the ~300,000 described plant species are used medicinally?

~35,000. Over 10%.

13

How popular is herbal medicine?

It's one of the most popular CAMs.

14

How many known medicinal plants are at risk of extinction?

400

15

What group of people added to European knowledge of herbal medicine?

Arabs

16

Which alternative medical systems include herbal medicines?

Naturopathy, ayurveda, TCM, and homeopathy.

17

When might the FDA withdraw and herbal medicine product?

If it's been shown to be unsafe.

18

How are herbs administered?

Applied or eaten fresh. Consumed dried. Tisanes, teas, and tinctures. Essential oils applied topically or inhaled.

19

Four types of herbalism

1. Shamanic.
2. Energetic.
3. Herbs have effects on particular physiological functions, but effects are not linked to particular compounds.
4. Plants are sources of bio-active chemicals.

20

Do active molecules vary from plant to plant?

Yes.

21

What percent of the world's population uses herbal medicine?

80%

22

What are secondary compounds?

They are not produced as part of the plants normal metabolic pathways. They are produced by specialized, secondary pathways.

23

Why would plants invest raw materials and energy to make secondary compounds?

They are thought to have evolved because they deter plant-eating animals.

24

What are common problems with many trials on herbal medicines?

High degree of publication bias and safety not assessed.

25

Which forms of alternative medicine include an energetic philosophy of herbalism?

TCM and Ayurvedic.

26

When are herbal medicines more like pharmaceuticals?

When practitioners and manufacturers try to standardize the amount of one active ingredient.

27

Examples of sick animals that seek out plants for self-medication.

Chimpanzees, sheep, and cats.

28

What is it called when combinations of compounds increase the effects of herbal medicines?

Synergy

29

What are ecological considerations surrounding herbal medicines?

Habitat destruction is resulting in the loss of medicinal species. But also, harvesting plants for herbal medicines can put pressure on wild populations.

30

In order to get a NPN, what criteria must an herbal medicine meet?

It must be found to be safe, effective, and of high quality under its recommended conditions of use.